Review ArticlesDifferential Diagnosis in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms of the LarynxHunt, Jennifer L. MD, MEd*; Ferlito, Alfio MD, DLO, DPath, FRCSEd ad hominem, FRCS (Eng, Glasg, Ir) ad eundem, FDSRCS ad eundem, FHKCORL, FRCPath, FASCP, IFCAP†; Hellquist, Henrik MD, PhD, FRCPath‡; Rinaldo, Alessandra MD, FRCSEd ad hominem, FRCS (Eng, Ir) ad eundem, FRCSGlasg, FACS§; Skálová, Alena MD, PhD∥; Slootweg, Pieter J. MD, DMD, PhD¶; Willems, Stefan M. MD, PhD#; Cardesa, Antonio MD, PhD**Author Information *Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR ‡Department of Biomedical Sciences and Medicine, University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal †International Head and Neck Scientific Group, Padua §ENT Service, University of Udine School of Medicine, Udine, Italy ∥Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine in Plzen, Charles University in Prague, Plzen, Czech Republic ¶Department of Pathology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen #Department of Pathology, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands **Department of Anatomic Pathology, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose. Reprints: Jennifer L. Hunt, MD, MEd, Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 W. Markham, Mailstop 517, Little Rock, 72205 AR (e-mail: [email protected]). All figures can be viewed online in color at http://www.anatomicpathology.com. Advances In Anatomic Pathology: May 2017 - Volume 24 - Issue 3 - p 161-168 doi: 10.1097/PAP.0000000000000147 Buy Metrics Abstract The differential diagnosis of neuroendocrine neoplasms of the larynx is broad and includes lesions of epithelial, mesenchymal, and neuroectodermal origin. These lesions have overlapping clinical and pathologic aspects and must be carefully considered in the differential diagnosis of laryngeal neoplasms. The prognosis and treatment are also different among these tumor types, which necessitates making these distinctions clinically. The current literature was reviewed to provide updated information regarding the epithelial-derived tumors, including carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine component. These tumors are compared and contrasted with non–epithelial-derived tumors such as paraganglioma and nonmucosal tumors, such as medullary thyroid carcinoma. The morphologic and cytologic features are discussed, along with helpful immunohistochemical and ancillary investigations. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.