An understanding of statistics is essential for analysis of many types of data including data sets typically reported in surgical pathology research papers. Fortunately, a relatively small number of statistical tests apply to data relevant to surgical pathologists. An understanding of when to apply these tests would greatly benefit surgical pathologists who read and/or write papers. In this review, we show how the publicly available statistical program R can be used to analyze recently published surgical pathology papers to replicate the p-values and survival curves presented in these papers. Areas covered include: T-test, chi-square and Fisher exact tests of proportionality, Kaplan-Meier survival curves, the log rank test, and Cox proportional hazards.
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Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA
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The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose.
Reprints: John P.T. Higgins, MD, Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 (e-mail: email@example.com).
All figures can be viewed online in color at http://http://www.anatomicpathology.com.