Treatment Effects in the Prostate Including Those Associated With Traditional and Emerging TherapiesEvans, Andrew J. MD, PhD, FRCPC; Ryan, Paul MD; Van derKwast, Theodorus MDAdvances in Anatomic Pathology: July 2011 - Volume 18 - Issue 4 - p 281–293 doi: 10.1097/PAP.0b013e318220f5b1 Review Articles Abstract Author Information Classic treatment options for prostate cancer consist of radical prostatectomy, antiandrogen (or hormonal) therapy, and radiation therapy. Hormonal and radiation therapy, in particular, have well known, often profound effects on the histologic appearance of benign prostate tissue and prostatic carcinoma. The tissue changes induced by these treatments have been comprehensively described in several sources. Novel therapies ranging from focal ablative treatments to highly targeted molecular therapies are beginning to emerge and pathologists will play a central role in documenting the effects of these treatments on normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is therefore important that pathologists have access to basic treatment information and a solid working knowledge of the morphologic changes induced by these therapies. This will ensure accurate interpretation and reporting of posttreatment prostate specimens. This review is based on a presentation given by Dr A. Evans at the International Society of Urological Pathology Companion Society Meeting (Hot Topics in Urological Pathology) at The United States Canadian Academy of Pathology Meeting in Washington DC on March 20, 2010. This review will cover the histopathologic features seen in benign prostate tissue and prostatic carcinoma seen following: hormonal therapy, radiation therapy, ablative therapies such as vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy, interstitial laser thermotherapy, and high-intensity focussed ultrasound. An emphasis is placed on these specific modalities as they are currently in use as primary, salvage, or investigational therapy in the treatment of prostate cancer. Department of Pathology, Laboratory Medicine Program, University Health Network, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada The authors declare no conflict of interest. Reprints: Andrew J. Evans, MD, PhD, FRCPC, University Health Network, Laboratory Medicine Program, Toronto General Hospital, Eaton 11-444, 200 Elizabeth Street, Toronto, ON, M5G 2C4, Canada (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.