Review ArticlesUrothelial Neoplasms of the Urinary Bladder Occurring in Young Adult and Pediatric Patients A Comprehensive Review of Literature With Implications for Patient ManagementPaner, Gladell P. MD*; Zehnder, Pascal MD†,‡; Amin, Anmol M.‡; Husain, Aliya N. MD*; Desai, Mihir M. MD‡Author Information *Department of Pathology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL †Department of Urology, University Hospital of Bern, Bern, Switzerland ‡Department of Urology, Norris Cancer Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA Reprints: Gladell P. Paner, MD, Department of Pathology, Section of Urology, Department of Surgery, The University of Chicago Hospitals, 5841 S. Maryland Avenue, Room AMB P321-MC 6101, Chicago, IL 60637 (e-mail: [email protected]). All figures can be viewed online in color at http://www.anatomicpathology.com. Advances in Anatomic Pathology: January 2011 - Volume 18 - Issue 1 - p 79-89 doi: 10.1097/PAP.0b013e318204c0cf Buy Metrics Abstract Bladder urothelial carcinoma is typically a disease of older individuals and rarely occurs below the age of 40 years. There is debate and uncertainty in the literature regarding the clinicopathologic characteristics of bladder urothelial neoplasms in younger patients compared with older patients, although no consistent age criteria have been used to define “younger” age group categories. Use of the World Health Organization 2004/International Society of Urological Pathology 1998 grading nomenclature and recent molecular studies highlight certain unique features of bladder urothelial neoplasms in young patients, particularly in patients below 20 years of age. In this meta-analysis and review, the clinical, pathologic, and molecular features and risk factors of bladder urothelial neoplasms in patients 40 years or less are presented and analyzed according to decades of presentation. Similar to older patients, bladder urothelial neoplasms in patients 40 years or younger occur more common in male patients, present mainly with gross painless hematuria, and are more commonly located at bladder trigone/ureteral orifices, but in contrast have a greater chance for unifocality. Delay in diagnosis of bladder urothelial neoplasms seems not to be uncommon in younger patients probably because of its relative rarity and the predominance of benign causes of hematuria in this age group causing hesitancy for an aggressive work-up. Most tumors in patients younger than 40 years were low grade. The incidence of low-grade tumors was the lowest in the first 2 decades of life, with incremental increase of the percentage of high-grade tumors with increasing age decades. Classification according to the World Health Organization 2004/International Society of Urological Pathology grading system identified papillary urothelial neoplasms of low malignant potential to be relatively frequent among bladder tumors of young patients particularly in the teenage years. Similar to grade, there was marked predominance of low stage tumors in the first 2 decades of life with gradual inclusion of few higher stage and metastatic tumors in the 2 older decades. Bladder urothelial neoplasms occurring in patients <20 years of age lack or have a much lower incidence of aberrations in chromosome 9, FGFR3, p53, and microsatellite instability and have fewer epigenetic alterations. Tumor recurrence and deaths were infrequent in the first 2 decades and increased gradually in each successive decade, likely influenced by the increased proportion of higher grade and higher stage tumors. Our review of the literature shows that urothelial neoplasms of the bladder occurring in young patients exhibit unique pathologic and molecular features that translate to its more indolent behavior; this distinction is most pronounced in patients <20 years. Our overall inferences have potential implications for choosing appropriate noninvasive diagnostic and surveillance modalities, whenever feasible, and for selecting suitable treatment strategies that factor in quality of life issues vital to younger patients. © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.