Review ArticlesMolecular Alterations in Prostate Cancer as Diagnostic, Prognostic, and Therapeutic TargetsGurel, Bora MD*; Iwata, Tsuyoshi MD*; Koh, Cheryl M. BS*; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan MD, PhD† ‡; Nelson, William G. MD, PhD* † ‡ § ∥; De Marzo, Angelo M. MD, PhD* † ‡ § ∥Author Information Departments of *Pathology †Oncology ‡The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center §Urology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine ∥The Brady Urological Research Institute at Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, MD Grants: Public Health Services NIH/NCI Specialized Program in Research Excellence (SPORE) in Prostate Cancer No. P50CA58236 (Johns Hopkins). Angelo M. De Marzo is the Beth W. and A. Ross Myers Scholar supported through The Patrick C. Walsh Prostate Cancer Research Fund. Reprints: Angelo M. De Marzo, MD, PhD, Bunting-Blaustein Cancer Research Building, Room 153, 1650 Orleans Street, Baltimore, MD 21231 (e-mail: [email protected]). Advances in Anatomic Pathology: November 2008 - Volume 15 - Issue 6 - p 319-331 doi: 10.1097/PAP.0b013e31818a5c19 Buy Metrics Abstract Prostatic adenocarcinoma is extremely common in Western nations, representing the second leading cause of cancer death in American men. The recent application of increasingly sophisticated molecular approaches to the study of prostate cancer in this “postgenomic” era has resulted in a rapid increase in the identification of somatic genome alterations and germline heritable risk factors in this disease. These findings are leading to a new understanding of the pathogenesis of prostate cancer and to the generation of new targets for diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction of therapeutic response. Although we are still in the very early phase of clinical development, some of the molecular alterations identified in prostate cancer are being translated into clinical practice. The purpose of this review is to update the practicing surgical pathologist, and residents-in-training in pathology, regarding recent findings in the molecular pathobiology of prostate cancer. We will highlight some of the somatic molecular alterations associated with prostate cancer development and progression, with a focus on newer discoveries. In addition, recent studies in which new molecular diagnostic approaches have been applied in the clinic will be discussed. © 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.