Original ArticlesXylazine, a Veterinary Tranquilizer, Detected in 42 Accidental Fentanyl Intoxication DeathsNunez, Jacqueline MD; DeJoseph, Maura E. DO; Gill, James R. MDAuthor Information From the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, Farmington, CT. Manuscript received June 24, 2020; accepted August 4, 2020. The authors report no conflict of interest. No financial support or funding. Reprints: James R. Gill, MD, Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, 11 Shuttle Rd, Farmington, CT 06032 860-679-3980. E-mail: [email protected]. The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology: March 2021 - Volume 42 - Issue 1 - p 9-11 doi: 10.1097/PAF.0000000000000622 Buy Metrics Abstract Xylazine is an emerging adulterant with fentanyl in fatal drug intoxications, which has public health, safety, and criminal investigative implications. Xylazine is a nonnarcotic sedative used for analgesia and muscle relaxation exclusively in veterinary medicine. Its chemical structure is similar to clonidine and acts as a central α-2 agonist which may cause bradycardia and transient hypertension followed by hypotension. We report the detection of xylazine in 42 deaths in Connecticut from March to August 2019. Xylazine combined with an opioid or stimulant may affect the toxicity of these drugs. Detection of xylazine may help the forensic pathologist distinguish illicit from prescribed fentanyl, and law enforcement agents track the illicit drugs to a specific drug supplier. Because of its lack of response to naloxone, emergency medicine physicians need to be aware of its potential presence as it may affect therapy. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.