Case ReportsPaenibacillus Sepsis and Meningitis in a Premature Infant A Case ReportHunt, Brice MD∗; Rogers, Christopher MS, MD, MBA∗; Blais, Rachel Martin MD†; Adachi, Kristina MD, MA†; Sathyavagiswaran, Lakshmanan MD, FRCPC, FACP, FCAP∗Author Information From the ∗Department of Medical Examiner-Coroner †Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA. Manuscript received June 16, 2020; accepted July 11, 2020. The authors report no conflict of interest. Reprints: Brice Hunt, MD, Department of Medical Examiner-Coroner, 1104 N Mission Rd, Los Angeles CA 90033. E-mail: [email protected]. This study was presented in part at the annual meeting of the National Association of Medical Examiners, Kansas City, MO, October 2019. The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology: March 2021 - Volume 42 - Issue 1 - p 96-98 doi: 10.1097/PAF.0000000000000610 Buy Metrics Abstract Infections due to bacteria of the genus Paenibacillus are exceedingly rare and therefore predominately described on a case-by-case basis. Here, we present a case of a 25-day-old premature neonate who died from presumed Paenibacillus sepsis and meningitis. Most prior reported cases of Paenibacillus bacteremia were among patients who had prosthetic medical devices, were immunocompromised, or were injection drug users. However, to our knowledge, this is the first reported case of infant death from presumed Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus. This case suggests the potential for severe human infection by an environmental bacterium previously considered to be of little consequence. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.