Review ArticleCamel-Related Deaths—A Forensic OverviewGilbert, John D. FRCPA∗; Byard, Roger W. MD, DSc∗,†Author Information From the ∗Forensic Science South Australia, Adelaide †Adelaide Medical School, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. Manuscript received May 26, 2020; accepted July 10, 2020. The authors report no conflict of interest. Reprints: Roger Byard, MBBS, MD, School of Medicine, Level 3 Medical School North Bldg, The University of Adelaide, Frome Rd, Adelaide 5005, SA, Australia. E-mail: [email protected]. The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology: March 2021 - Volume 42 - Issue 1 - p 46-50 doi: 10.1097/PAF.0000000000000606 Buy Metrics Abstract Camels are ungulates of the genus Camelus and have been used for centuries in parts of Asia and Africa for transport and sustenance. Handling of camels is not without its dangers, and 4 cases from South Australia are reported with a review of lethal camel-related issues. Case 1 is a 56-year-old man who died of multiple blunt force injuries after he had attempted to move a 7-year-old female dromedary (Camelus dromedarius). Case 2 is a 65-year-old woman who was crushed by 1 or more camels that she had been training. Case 3 is a 1-year-old girl who died of blunt craniocerebral trauma after the car in which she was traveling rolled when the driver swerved to avoid a herd of camels that had strayed onto the road. Case 4 is a 66-year-old woman who died of ischemic and hypertensive cardiac disease exacerbated by physical activity while rounding up camels. Deaths associated with camels involve kicking, stomping, kneeling or sitting on a victim, or biting and shaking and throwing. Lethal mechanisms include hemorrhage from vascular injuries and internal organ disruption, crush asphyxia, and blunt craniospinal injuries. Death may also follow falls from camels or vehicle collisions. Camels also carry a wide range of zoonotic diseases, the most significant of which is Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome. Handling of camels may also exacerbate underlying organic illnesses such as cardiac disease. Those working with camels should be aware that the size, strength, and temperament of these animals may make them dangerous and that they also carry potentially lethal zoonotic diseases. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.