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Assessing Chronological Age of Unaccompanied Minors in Southern Italy

Nuzzolese, Emilio DDS, PhD; Solarino, Biagio MD; Liuzzi, Claudia MD; Di Vella, Giancarlo MD, PhD

The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology: September 2011 - Volume 32 - Issue 3 - p 202-207
doi: 10.1097/PAF.0b013e318221bc73
Case Reports

The increasing volume of, and subsequent complexities resulting from, migratory flows in the broader context of globalization has led to a range of problems, not only the protection of human rights and disease control but also the identification of those with the right to apply for refugee status and the age assessment of unaccompanied minors. Italy is a magnet for immigration from other countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea because the Italian coasts are within easy reach.

In Italy, as in other western countries, unaccompanied asylum seekers deemed to be younger than 18 years face a very different path through the immigration system from that experienced by adults. Generally, adults are subject to immediate deportation or detention in jail. Minors are processed through the juvenile system, where detection is not mandatory; they will often have access to educational programs and may be granted a residency permit.

The Section of Legal Medicine of the University of Bari was approached by immigration police authorities and judges to explore the possibility of examining unaccompanied asylum seekers, who claim do be younger than 18 years, to assess their age.

A group of forensic pathologists and odontologists performed this evaluation relying on the skeletal maturation as seen on radiographs of the wrist and the pelvis for iliac crests and on an orthopantomograph, together with background information and clinical examination of each individual. Case studies are presented.

This article does not attempt to give a definitive account of the different scientific methods for the assessment of age. It is important to understand some of the methods that may be used in an attempt to assess developmental maturity and from which it may be possible to "read off" an approximate chronological age.

From the Sezione di Medicina Legale, Università degli Studi di Bari, Bari, Italy.

Manuscript received December 22, 2007; accepted December 29, 2007.

Dr Nuzzolese is a forensic odontologist in Bari, Italy.

The authors report no conflicts of interest.

Reprints: Emilio Nuzzolese, DDS, PhD, Viale J.F. Kennedy 77, I-70124 Bari, Italy. E-mail:

© 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.