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Survival of Anesthetized Sus scrofa After Cycling (7-Second On/3-Second Off) Exposures to an Electronic Control Device for 3 Minutes

Jauchem, James R. PhD*; Seaman, Ronald L. PhD; Fines, David A. BS

The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology: June 2011 - Volume 32 - Issue 2 - p 124-130
doi: 10.1097/PAF.0b013e3182186d5d
Original Articles

Electronic control devices (ECDs) may eventually be deployed by the military in a manner resulting in longer exposures than those encountered during law-enforcement operations. In a previous study, 18 repeated cycling (5-second on/5-second off) exposures (within a 3-minute period) of anesthetized swine to an ECD (TASER International's Advanced TASER X26 device) resulted in leg muscle contraction, acidosis, and increases in blood electrolytes. In the current study, experiments were performed to examine effects of exposures to a different cycling rate (7-second on/3-second off), from a modified X26 ECD, on 10 swine (Sus scrofa), maintained on propofol anesthesia. In contrast with the previous study, a large number of animals (6/10) died immediately after the exposures. There were no major differences in pre-exposure blood factors from survivors versus nonsurvivors, with the exception of hematocrit and 2 isoenzymes of lactate dehydrogenase. It is doubtful that these factors would be useful in predicting survival after ECD exposure. Blood pH was significantly decreased after exposure, but (in animals that survived) subsequently returned to baseline levels. On the basis of the overall survival rate, further development of useful ECDs (for long-term incapacitation during military operations) may require consideration of longer pauses between repeated exposures over a 3-minute period.

From the *Directed Energy Bioeffects Division, Human Effectiveness Directorate, US Air Force Research Laboratory; and †Advanced Information Engineering Services (A General Dynamics Company), San Antonio, TX.

Manuscript received August 29, 2007; accepted December 6, 2007.

The views, opinions, and/or findings contained in this report are those of the authors and should not be construed as an official Department of Defense position, policy, or decision.

Reprints: James R. Jauchem, PhD, AFRL/HEDR, 8262 Hawks Rd, San Antonio, TX 78235. E-mail:

© 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.