ReviewsDeath During Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Nerve Root Block (C7) due to Perforation of the Left Vertebral ArteryRozin, Leon MD; Rozin, Roman MD; Koehler, Steven A. MPH, PhD; Shakir, Abdulrezzak MD; Ladham, Shaun MD; Barmada, Mamdouha MD; Dominick, Joseph RN, LFD; Wecht, Cyril H. MD, JD Author Information From the Allegheny County Coroner’s Office, Pittsburgh, Pennsyvania. Manuscript received August 5, 2002; accepted May 29, 2003. Reprints: Steven A. Koehler, Allegheny County Coroner’s Office, 542 Fourth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15219. E-mail: [email protected] The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology: December 2003 - Volume 24 - Issue 4 - p 351-355 doi: 10.1097/01.paf.0000097790.45455.45 Buy Metrics Abstract Treatment for individuals suffering from migraines and pain due to an inflammation or impingement of a nerve range from noninvasive methods such as massage, physical therapy, and medications to invasive methods such as epidural steroid injections and surgery. Each method of treatment has an associated level of risk. While minor to moderate complications from such procedures do occur, deaths are very rare. We report the first cited case of a death associated with the pain management procedure called nerve root block, also referred to as a transforaminal epidural steroid injection. We present the medical history and autopsy findings of a 44-year-old white female who died of massive cerebral edema secondary to the dissection of the left vertebral artery and subsequent thrombosis due to the perforation of that artery by a 25-gauge spinal needle during a C-7 nerve root block. © 2003 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.