ArticleCombination of DNA-Based and Conventional Methods to Detect Human Leukocyte Antigen Polymorphism and Its Use for Paternity TestingKereszturya, László Ph.D.; Rajczya, Katalin Ph.D.; Lászikb, András M.D., Ph.D.; Gyódia, Éva Ph.D.; Pénzes, Mária Ph.D.; Falus, András Ph.D., M.D., C.M.A., and; Petrányia, Gyõzõ G. Ph.D., M.D., C.M.A.Author Information From the National Institute of Haematology and Immunology, (L.K., K.R., É.G., G.P.), Institute of Legal Medicine, Semmelweis University (A.L.), and Department of Genetics, Cellular and Immunobiology, Semmelweis University (A.F.) Budapest, Hungary. Manuscript received June 9, 2001; accepted September 20, 2001. Address correspondence and reprint requests to László Kereszturya, National Institute of Haematology and Immunology, Daróczi 24, Budapest, 1113, Hungary. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology: March 2002 - Volume 23 - Issue 1 - p 57-62 Buy Abstract In cases of disputed paternity, the scientific goal is to promote either the exclusion of a falsely accused man or the affiliation of the alleged father. Until now, in addition to anthropologic characteristics, the determination of genetic markers included human leukocyte antigen gene variants; erythrocyte antigens and serum proteins were used for that reason. Recombinant DNA techniques provided a new set of highly variable genetic markers based on DNA nucleotide sequence polymorphism. From the practical standpoint, the application of these techniques to paternity testing provides greater versatility than do conventional genetic marker systems. The use of methods to detect the polymorphism of human leukocyte antigen loci significantly increases the chance of validation of ambiguous results in paternity testing. The outcome of 2384 paternity cases investigated by serologic and/or DNA-based human leukocyte antigen typing was statistically analyzed. Different cases solved by DNA typing are presented involving cases with one or two accused men, exclusions and nonexclusions, and tests of the paternity of a deceased man. The results provide evidence for the advantage of the combined application of various techniques in forensic diagnostics and emphasizes the outstanding possibilities of DNA-based assays. Representative examples demonstrate the strength of combined techniques in paternity testing. © 2002 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.