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Development and Morphology of the Sternal Foramen

Cooper Paula D.; Stewart, John Harlan M.A., M.D.; McCormick, William F. M.S., M.D.
The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology: December 1988
Forensic Anthropology: PDF Only

Bony defects (foramina) in the sternum were found in 6.7% of a large contemporary autopsy population. Usually solitary and located in the body of the sternum, these defects rarely occur multiply and in the manubrium. They have been found in children as young as 8 years as well as in persons of advanced age. Multiple mesosternal foramina and a manubrial foramen are described here for the first time. Sternal foramina form along lines of fusion of multiple centers of ossification and are the result of incomplete fusion. They have been misinterpreted as acquired lesions, usually gunshot wounds

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