Extraordinary Case ReportProgression of Infective Dermatitis Associated with HTLV-1 to Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma—Case Report and Literature ReviewRosa, Bárbara L. MD*; Silva, Thadeu S. MD*; Dias, Maria A. MD*; Araujo, Iguaracyra MD, PhD†; Bittencourt, Achiléa L. MD, PhD† Author Information *Department of Internal Medicine, Prof. Edgard Santos Teaching Hospital, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Brazil; and †Department of Pathology, Prof. Edgard Santos Teaching Hospital, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Brazil. Correspondence: Achiléa L. Bittencourt, MD, PhD, Department of Pathology, Professor Edgard Santos Teaching Hospital, Federal University of Bahia, Rua Augusto Viana, sem número, CEP 40110-060, Canela, Salvador, Brazil (e-mail: [email protected]). Supported by a grant from the Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa (CNPq). Conception of the study and writing the paper: A. L. Bittencourt, B. L. Rosa. Evaluating and treating the patients: M. A. Dias, T. S. Silva. Pathological and immunohistochemical diagnosis: A. L. Bittencourt, I. Araujo. Provided study materials and collected, analyzed, and interpreted data: B. L. Rosa. Revising it critically and approving the final version of the manuscript: all authors. The authors declare no conflicts of interest. The patient provided a written informed consent to participate in this study, for the publication of any potentially identifiable images or data included in this article. The American Journal of Dermatopathology: May 2022 - Volume 44 - Issue 5 - p 368-371 doi: 10.1097/DAD.0000000000002044 Buy Metrics Abstract The human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 is a retrovirus that may cause severe diseases such as infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1 (IDH) and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). IDH is a chronic relapsing infected eczema of childhood, and ATL is a distinct type of peripheral T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, which is classified into the following types: smoldering, primary cutaneous tumoral, chronic, lymphoma, and acute. Progression of IDH to ATL during the course of IDH has been previously reported in 3 young patients, two of them from Bahia (Brazil). We present the case of a 22-year-old man who had IDH since childhood and developed ATL 18 months ago. The lymphoma lesions were superimposed on previously existing IDH lesions (forehead, axillae, umbilical area, and neck) or in areas generally affected by IDH (external genitalia, hypogastrium, groin, and eyelid). Cutaneous lesions in ATL are very frequent, but in this patient, besides infiltrated plaques and papules presented vesicles on the skin corresponding histologically to dilated Pautrier abscesses. Vesicular ATL is a rare condition. This case constitutes a very demonstrative example of the close correlation between IDH and ATL. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.