Neoadjuvant chemoradiation (NA-CRT), followed by resection of high-risk soft tissue sarcoma (STS), may offer good disease control and toxicity outcomes. We report on a single institution’s modern NA-CRT experience.
Materials and Methods:
Delay to surgical resection, resection margin status, extent of necrosis, tumor cell viability, presence of hyalinization, positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography data, and treatment toxicities were collected. Using the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, 5-year overall survival, disease-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, and local control (LC) were estimated. Clinicopathologic features and PET/computed tomography avidity changes were assessed for their potential predictive impact using the log-rank test.
From 2011 to 2018, 37 consecutive cases of localized high-risk STS were identified. Twenty-nine patients underwent ifosfamide-based NA-CRT to a median dose of 50 Gy before en bloc resection. At a median follow-up of 40.3 months, estimated 5-year overall survival was 86.1%, disease-free survival 70.2%, distant metastasis-free survival 75.2%, and LC 86.7%. Following NA-CRT, a median reduction of 54.7% was observed in tumor PET avidity; once resected, median tumor necrosis of 60.0% with no viable tumor cells was detected in 13.8% of the cases. Posttreatment resection margins were negative in all patients, with 27.6% having a margin of ≤1 mm. Delays of over 6 weeks following the end of radiation treatment to surgical resection occurred in 20.7% cases and was suggestive of inferior LC (92.8% vs. 68.6%, P=0.025).
This single-institution series of NA-CRT demonstrates favorable disease control. Delay in surgical resection was associated with inferior LC, a finding that deserves further evaluation in a larger cohort.
Level of Evidence:
Level III—retrospective cohort study.