Despite the initial clinical benefit, resistance to antiangiogenic therapies develops through the activation of alternative pathways. We measured plasma levels of circulating angiogenic factors to explore their predictive role in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients treated with pazopanib.
Materials and Methods:
mRCC patients receiving first-line pazopanib were prospectively enrolled. The levels of circulating interleuchine (IL)-6, IL-8, stromal derived factor-1, vascular endothelial growth factor-A, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), osteopontin, and E-selectin were quantified at baseline and every 4 weeks until disease progression (PD). Patients were dichotomized into “low” and “high” subgroups by a cutoff point defined by the respective median circulating angiogenic factor (CAF) value at baseline. Then, association with the objective response was determined. Changes in CAF levels between baseline and PD were also compared.
Among 25 patients included in the final data set, 6 patients were still on treatment. As best response, 12 patients presented a partial response (48%), 9 showed stable disease, and 4 showed PD. The median follow-up was 31.9 months. The median progression-free survival was 14.8 months. Low baseline levels of IL-6, IL-8, HGF, and osteopontin were found to be significantly associated with objective response. In addition, patients with low baseline levels of HGF showed longer progression-free survival and overall survival, whereas patients with low baseline levels of IL-8 showed longer overall survival. Among patients experiencing PD, the median plasma levels of stromal derived factor-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A were significantly higher compared with the baseline (P=0.01; P=0.011). Conversely, the median levels of E-selectin were significantly lower compared with the baseline (P=0.017).
Changes in levels of selected CAFs were associated with response/resistance to pazopanib in mRCC patients.