To determine if aerosol granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) decreases the 2-year pulmonary metastasis rate for soft tissue sarcoma.
Patients and Methods:
Patients with high-grade soft tissue sarcomas were treated with 2 cycles of ifosfamide, mitomycin, doxorubicin, and cisplatin plus GM-CSF subcutaneous followed by 45 Gy irradiation with concurrent 2 cycles of mitomycin, doxorubicin, and cisplatin followed by surgery +/− intraoperative radiation or brachytherapy. Aerosol GM-CSF (250 mcg twice a day) was administered for 1 week every other week 3× during neoadjuvant therapy and beginning 4 weeks postoperatively every other week 5×.
A total of 39 patients were enrolled between November 2001 and April 2006. The median age was 51 years (range, 19 to 65 y). The median lesion size was 9 cm (range, 2.3 to 26.7 cm). Seventy-six percent experienced grade 3-4 hematologic toxicity. Twenty-four of the first 35 evaluable patients (69%; 95% CI, 41%-84%) were free of pulmonary metastasis at 2 years. A total of 82% (95% CI, 70%-95%) of patients were still alive after 3 years, with a median follow-up of 5.5 years (range, 3.4 to 7.6 y). A total of 58% (95% CI, 44%-76%) of patients remained progression free after 3 years.
The addition of aerosol GM-CSF to combined chemotherapy, irradiation, and surgery for soft tissue sarcomas did not achieve the study endpoint to decrease the 2-year pulmonary metastasis rate.