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Cancer of the Orbit and Adnexa.

Schwarcz, Robert M., MD*,†,‡; Coupland, Sarah E., MBBS, PhD§; Finger, Paul T., MD*,†,∥

American Journal of Clinical Oncology: April 2013 - Volume 36 - Issue 2 - p 197–205
doi: 10.1097/COC.0b013e31820dbf28
Review Articles

The diagnosis and treatment of orbital and periorbital malignancies are challenging. These tumors can result in blindness, death, and significant cosmetic deformities. Herein, we present the most common ocular malignancies and a systematic approach to diagnosis. Further, we integrate the seventh edition American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system, biomarkers, and multidisciplinary approaches to treatment.

*The Department of Ocular Tumor and Orbital Disease, The New York Eye Cancer Center

The Department of Ophthalmology, The New York Eye and Ear Infirmary

The Department of Ophthalmology, Albert Einstein School of Medicine

§The Department of Pathology, Royal Liverpool University Hospital

The Department of Ophthalmology, New York University School of Medicine, New York City, NY

Reprints: Paul T. Finger, MD, FACS, The New York Eye Cancer Center, 115 East 61st Street, New York, NY 10065. e-mail:

Supported by the Eye Cancer Foundation, Inc.

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Robert M. Schwarcz, MD, 50 East 79th Street, New York City, NY.

Sarah E. Coupland MBBS, Royal Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool L69-3GA.

© 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc