Diabetes is a chronic disease that can lead to many complications, and controlling glucose balance is essential. Incretin hormones are produced in the gut and are essential to maintaining glucose homeostasis. Their effects range from increasing insulin synthesis, insulin secretion, and glucose sensing and decreasing glucagon secretion to promote satiety and suppressing appetite. Tirzepatide is a first in class dual glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) analog approved for the management of adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus as an adjunct to diet and exercise.
Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics:
Tirzepatide is a synthetic chemical structure based on the GIP sequence and consists of 39 amino acid peptides. Tirzepatide increases insulin secretion, reduces glucagon release in a glucose-dependent manner, decreases fasting and postprandial glucose levels, promotes satiety, decreases body weight, and delays gastric emptying. Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics properties of tirzepatide were similar in patients with kidney and hepatic impairment, and its metabolites are excreting through urine and feces.
The SURPASS trials are pivotal phase 3 trials assessing the efficacy and safety of tirzepatide as monotherapy and as an add-on to different antihyperglycemic drugs for the management of T2DM. Tirzepatide consistently showed reductions in HbA1c, as well as benefits with weight loss, with common adverse events reported related to gastrointestinal issues.
Tirzepatide is a novel first in class dual GIP and glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist that improves overall glycemic control as an adjunct to diet and exercise. It has the potential benefits in other therapeutic areas such as obesity.