Therapeutic ReviewsEffectiveness and Safety of Arnica montana in Post-Surgical Setting, Pain and InflammationIannitti, Tommaso PhD1,*; Morales-Medina, Julio César PhD2; Bellavite, Paolo MD3; Rottigni, Valentina MSC4; Palmieri, Beniamino MD, PhD4 Author Information 1School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom; 2Douglas Mental Health Research Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; 3Department of Pathology and Diagnostics, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; and 4Department of Surgery and Surgical Specialties, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia Medical School, Surgical Clinic, Modena, Italy. Address for correspondence: School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Leeds, Mount Preston St, Garstang building, Leeds, LS2 9JT, United Kingdom. E-mail: [email protected] The authors contributed equally to this work. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. American Journal of Therapeutics: January/February 2016 - Volume 23 - Issue 1 - p e184-e197 doi: 10.1097/MJT.0000000000000036 Buy Metrics Abstract Arnica montana has been widely used as a homeopathic remedy for the treatment of several inflammatory conditions in pain management and postoperative settings. This review gives an overview of the therapeutic use of Arnica montana in the above-mentioned fields also focusing on its mechanisms of action learned from animal models and in vitro studies. Arnica montana is more effective than placebo when used for the treatment of several conditions including post-traumatic and postoperative pain, edema, and ecchymosis. However, its dosages and preparations used have produced substantial differences in the clinical outcome. Cumulative evidence suggests that Arnica montana may represent a valid alternative to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, at least when treating some specific conditions. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.