Prostate cancer is the leading cause of nonskin malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer death in men. Androgen deprivation therapy is the first-line of systemic therapy against advanced prostate cancer. All advanced prostate cancers eventually grow despite castrate levels of testosterone. We review the evidence that androgen independent prostate cancer continues to require androgen receptor activity for growth, the mechanisms of androgen receptor activation in the castrate setting, and possible points of intervention for novel therapies targeting the androgen receptor and prostate cancer.
1Cytokine Molecular Mechanisms Section, Laboratory of Molecular Immunoregulation, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD
2Medical Oncology Clinical Research Unit, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland
This research was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the NIH, National Center Institute.
*Address for correspondence: Cytokine Molecular Mechanisms Section, Laboratory of Molecular Immunoregulation, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Frederick Bldg. 560, Room 31–76, Frederick, MD 21702. E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org;email@example.com