Original ArticlesSelf-awareness of Driving Ability in the Healthy Elderly and Patients With Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)Fragkiadaki, Stella MSc*; Beratis, Ion N. PhD*; Kontaxopoulou, Dionysia MSc*; Pavlou, Dimosthenis PhD†; Andronas, Nikolaos MD*; Papanicolaou, Andrew PhD‡; Economou, Alexandra PhD§; Yannis, George PhD†; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G. MD, PhD*Author Information *Cognitive Disorders/Dementia Unit, 2nd Department of Neurology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, “Attikon” University Hospital §Department of Psychology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens †Department of Transportation Planning and Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece ‡Department of Pediatrics, Division of Clinical Neurosciences, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN The current research was carried out within the framework of the Operational Program “Education and Lifelong Learning” of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF), namely the Research Funding Program: THALES and the Action: ARISTEIA (Action’s Beneficiary: General Secretariat for Research and Technology), cofinanced by the European Union (European Social Fund—ESF) and Greek national funds. The authors declare no conflicts of interest. Reprints: Sokratis G. Papageorgiou, MD, PhD, 2nd Department of Neurology, National University of Athens, University General Hospital “Attikon,” 1 Rimini Street, Haidari, Athens 12462, Greece (e-mail: email@example.com). Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders: April–June 2018 - Volume 32 - Issue 2 - p 107-113 doi: 10.1097/WAD.0000000000000254 Buy Metrics Abstract Introduction: According to latest research, a percentage of cognitively impaired drivers fail to recognize their areas of weakness and overestimate their driving abilities. Methods: Twenty-seven individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 26 healthy elderly drivers participated in a driving simulator study. After the driving assessment, participants were asked to self-evaluate their performance in comparison with what they considered as average for people of similar age and educational level. Results: According to the applied mixed analysis of variance model, the MCI patients presented increased difficulties in estimating their driving performance to a greater extent in the rural environment in comparison with the urban condition. Discussion: Our findings suggest that the ability of MCI patients to evaluate their driving performance accurately seems to be enhanced or compromised, depending on the number of cues available in their environment, suggesting that providing feedback may improve their metacognitive abilities. Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.