Background and Aims:
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive and complex neurodegenerative disease. Approximately 70% of AD risk is attributed to genetic risk factors, including variants in amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PSEN1), and presenilin 2 (PSEN2) genes. Several studies have revealed a considerable number of candidate loci and genes for AD among different ethnic populations. However, the outcomes of these studies have been inconsistent. In this study, we aimed to investigate the spectrum of variants that are associated with the onset and development of AD among 22 Arab countries.
We systematically searched 4 literature databases (Science Direct, Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science) from the date of inception until July 2020 using various search terms to obtain all the reported genetic data on Arab AD cases.
In total, 18 studies were included, comprising a total of 2173 individuals, of whom 888 were clinically diagnosed AD patients and were genetically tested for genes and variants associated with AD. A total of 27 variants in 8 genes were found to be associated with AD. Of these variants, 17 were unique to the Arab population and 10 were shared with other ethnic groups.
There is a dearth of studies on the genetics of AD in the Arab world. There seems to be distinctive genetic and clinical susceptibility profiles for Arab patients with AD.