Secondary Logo

Institutional members access full text with Ovid®

The Accuracy of INECO Frontal Screening in the Diagnosis of Executive Dysfunction in Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer Disease

Bahia, Valéria S., PhD*; Cecchini, Mário A., MD*; Cassimiro, Luciana, MD*; Viana, Rene, BSc*; Lima-Silva, Thais B., PhD*; de Souza, Leonardo Cruz, PhD; Carvalho, Viviane Amaral, MD; Guimarães, Henrique C., PhD; Caramelli, Paulo, PhD; Balthazar, Márcio L.F., PhD; Damasceno, Benito, PhD; Brucki, Sônia M.D., PhD*; Nitrini, Ricardo, PhD*; Yassuda, Mônica S., PhD*,§

Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders: October-December 2018 - Volume 32 - Issue 4 - p 314–319
doi: 10.1097/WAD.0000000000000255
Original Articles

Introduction: Executive dysfunction is a common symptom in neurodegenerative disorders and is in need of easy-to-apply screening tools that might identify it. The aims of the present study were to examine some of the psychometric characteristics of the Brazilian version of the INECO frontal screening (IFS), and to investigate its accuracy to diagnose executive dysfunction in dementia and its accuracy to differentiate Alzheimer disease (AD) from the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD).

Methods: Patients diagnosed with bvFTD (n=18) and AD (n=20), and 15 healthy controls completed a neuropsychological battery, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, the Clinical Dementia Rating, and the IFS.

Results: The IFS had acceptable internal consistency (α=0.714) and was significantly correlated with general cognitive measures and with neuropsychological tests. The IFS had adequate accuracy to differentiate patients with dementia from healthy controls (AUC=0.768, cutoff=19.75, sensitivity=0.80, specificity=0.63), but low accuracy to differentiate bvFTD from AD (AUC=0.594, cutoff=16.75, sensitivity=0.667, specificity=0.600).

Conclusion: The present study suggested that the IFS may be used to screen for executive dysfunction in dementia. Nonetheless, it should be used with caution in the differential diagnosis between AD and bvFTD.

Departments of *Neurology

§Gerontology, School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of São Paulo

Department of Neurology, University of Campinas, São Paulo

Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology Research group, School of Medicine, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (MG), Brazil

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Reprints: Valéria S. Bahia, PhD, Av. Dr. Enéas de Carvalho Aguiar, 255, Cerqueira César, CEP, São Paulo 05403-000, SP, Brazil (e-mail:

Received November 22, 2017

Accepted February 1, 2018

Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved