Original ArticlesLongitudinal Rates of Lobar Atrophy in Frontotemporal Dementia, Semantic Dementia, and Alzheimer's DiseaseKrueger, Casey E. PhD; Dean, David L. BS; Rosen, Howard J. MD; Halabi, Cathra BS; Weiner, Michael MD; Miller, Bruce L. MD; Kramer, Joel H. PsyDAuthor Information Memory and Aging Center, UCSF Department of Neurology, San Francisco, CA Reprints: Casey E. Krueger, PhD, Memory and Aging Center, UCSF Department of Neurology, 350 Parnassus Avenue, Suite 905, San Francisco, CA 94143-1207 (e-mail: [email protected]). Received for publication November 19, 2008; accepted February 25, 2009 This work was supported by the National Institute on Aging (NIA) grants AG22983 and P50-AG05142, and the State of California Alzheimer's Disease Research Center of California (ARCC) grant 01-154-20. The information in this manuscript has never before been published either electronically or in print. Disclosure: The authors report no conflicts of interest. Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders: January 2010 - Volume 24 - Issue 1 - p 43-48 doi: 10.1097/WAD.0b013e3181a6f101 Buy Metrics Abstract This study compared rates of regional atrophy in Alzheimer disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and semantic dementia (SD). Cross-sectional studies have shown that different dementia syndromes are associated with different patterns of regional brain tissue loss. Rates of atrophy over time may be useful for differential diagnosis, and could be used to monitor disease progression, serving as an outcome measure for clinical trials. We studied patients with AD (n=12), FTD (n=13), SD (n=20), and normal controls (n=23) longitudinally with structural magnetic resonance imaging, using BRAINS2 software to measure frontal, temporal, and parietal lobe volumes. In FTD the rate of frontal lobe atrophy over 1 year was greater than in any other group, whereas SD showed the highest rate in the temporal lobes. Atrophy in these regions progressed twice as quickly in FTD and SD compared with AD. Atrophy was not significantly faster for AD in any brain region compared with the other groups. Regional atrophy over time was significantly faster in FTD and SD compared with AD, and the regions of greatest atrophy were specific for each syndrome. Measuring specific regions of cerebral volume changes by serial neuroimaging may serve as a useful biomarker outcome measure for clinical trials in neurodegenerative diseases. © 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.