Original Article: PDF OnlyPregnancy-associated Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumors of the Uterus Are Clinically Distinct and Highly Enriched for TIMP3-ALK and THBS1-ALK FusionsDevereaux, Kelly A. MD, PhD; Fitzpatrick, Megan B. MD; Hartinger, Sara BS, MS; Jones, Carol BS; Kunder, Christian A. MD, PhD; Longacre, Teri A. MDAuthor Information Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA Conflicts of Interest and Source of Funding: The authors have disclosed that they have no significant relationships with, or financial interest in, any commercial companies pertaining to this article. Correspondence: Teri A. Longacre, MD, Department of Pathology, L235, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305 (e-mail: email@example.com). The American Journal of Surgical Pathology: April 07, 2020 - Volume Publish Ahead of Print - Issue - doi: 10.1097/PAS.0000000000001481 Buy PAP Metrics Abstract As inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) have become more widely recognized in the female genital tract, an intriguing subset of uterine tumors associated with pregnancy has emerged. Whether uterine IMTs occurring in the setting of pregnancy are clinically or biologically distinct from other uterine IMTs is unknown. Furthermore, little is known about the perinatal factors that may influence the development of these tumors. Here, we report the largest case series of 8 pregnancy-associated IMTs. All pregnancy-associated IMTs in this series occurred in association with pregnancy complications, including abnormal implantation (n=1), gestational diabetes (n=2), preeclampsia and/or HELLP syndrome (n=2), antiphospholipid syndrome (n=1), premature rupture of membranes (n=1), and hepatitis B (n=1). Notably, all IMTs were expelled at the time of delivery or immediately postpartum and were either adherent to the placenta or presented as separate, detached tissue. Tumors ranged from 2.0 to 6.0 cm (median, 3.9 cm), were well-circumscribed and showed classic histologic features of IMTs, including myxoid stroma and a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. Seven of 8 cases were positive by ALK immunohistochemistry and confirmed to have an ALK gene rearrangement by fluorescent in situ hybridization and RNA sequencing. The ALK-rearranged IMTs were found to be particularly enriched for TIMP3-ALK (n=5) and THBS1-ALK (n=2) fusions. The single case that was negative for an ALK rearrangement exhibited the classic morphology of an IMT. None of the 4 cases with available clinical follow-up recurred. The clinicopathologic features of pregnancy-associated IMTs in this series in conjunction with those reported in the literature suggests that these may be transient tumors that develop during pregnancy and shed at parturition; they appear to have a relatively indolent clinical course and favorable outcome, although studies with a longer duration of follow-up are still required. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.