Vulvar high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas (HGNECs) are rare and primarily thought to represent Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). We present the clinicopathologic features of 16 such cases, the largest series to date. Patients were most often White, postmenopausal, and symptomatic from a palpable vulvar mass/nodule. Tumors ranged from 0.7 to 6 cm and most commonly involved the labium majus. Majority of the cases were pure HGNECs (15/16) with small cell (SC) morphology (14/16); 2 were large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, of which 1 was combined with moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. All tumors expressed synaptophysin. Of the 14 HGNECs with SC morphology, 6 were CK20-positive MCCs with characteristic CAM5.2 and neurofilament (NF) expression. Five of these MCCs were positive for Merkel cell polyoma virus large T-antigen (MCPyVLTAg). In contrast, 6 HGNECs with SC morphology were negative for CK20, NF, and MCPyVLTAg and classified as SCNECs. High-risk human papilloma virus was positive in all SCNECs and negative in all MCCs. One case of HGNEC with SC morphology could not be entirely characterized due to lack of tissue for ancillary testing. Five of 12 (42%) cases had a discrepant diagnosis initially rendered. Most patients (10/15) presented with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage III or IV disease. Usual sites of metastasis included inguinal lymph node, liver, bone, and lung. Twelve patients underwent surgery with adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, 1 received adjuvant immunotherapy, and 1 patient received neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy. Median overall survival was 24 months (range: 7 to 103 mo), and overall 5-year survival was 12% (95% confidence interval: 1% to 39%). In summary, vulvar HGNECs are rare, aggressive neoplasms that can be further subclassified into MCC, SCNEC, and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. CK20, CAM5.2, NF, TTF-1, MCPyVLTAg, and high-risk human papilloma virus facilitate the distinction of MCC from SCNEC. Proper identification of vulvar HGNECs is critical for patient management.