Original ArticlesCondyloma Acuminatum of Urinary Bladder Relation to Squamous Cell CarcinomaSamarska, Iryna V. MD*,†; Epstein, Jonathan I. MD*,‡,§ Author Information Departments of *Pathology ‡Urology §Oncology, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD †Department of Pathology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands Conflicts of Interest and Source of Funding: The authors have disclosed that they have no significant relationships with, or financial interest in, any commercial companies pertaining to this article. Correspondence: Jonathan I. Epstein, MD, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, The Weinberg Building, Room 2242, 401 N. Broadway Street, Baltimore, MD 21231 (e-mail: [email protected]). The American Journal of Surgical Pathology 43(11):p 1547-1553, November 2019. | DOI: 10.1097/PAS.0000000000001339 Buy Metrics Abstract Condyloma acuminatum rarely occurs in the urinary bladder and is considered to be a risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma, although there are only a few publications with limited cases. We studied 51 cases of condyloma acuminatum of the urinary bladder from transurethral resections of the urinary bladder of 38 patients from the consult files of one of the authors. Transurethral resections of the urinary bladder were obtained from 25 males with a median age of 73 years (range: 41 to 87 y) and 13 females with a median age of 68 years (range: 30 to 86 y). The follow-up period ranged from 15 months to 20 years (median: 6 y). Bladder lesions were accompanied by urethral lesions in 4 men. Eight patients (8/38; 21.0%) had a history of immunosuppression. Seven patients (7/8; 87.5%) from this group had multiple and/or recurrent condylomas. One patient (1/38; 2.6%) with renal transplantation had 10 separate bladder condylomas over time. One patient (1/38; 2.6%) had extensive anogenital condylomas and anal intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3. One patient (1/8; 12.5%) with renal transplantation presented with a solitary condyloma with synchronous squamous cell carcinoma in situ. Three female patients (3/38; 7.9%) had a history of premalignant vagina/cervix lesions. In total, 17 patients (17/38; 44.7%) had squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder, either invasive or in situ. In all cases, the squamous cell carcinoma (either in situ or invasive) was diagnosed either concurrent with the diagnosis of bladder condyloma or within 1 year of the condyloma diagnosis). In total, 9 of 38 (23.7%) patients had invasive squamous cell carcinoma with or without in situ squamous cell carcinoma. Eight of 38 (21.0%) patients had squamous cell carcinoma in situ only (without a definitive invasive component—in 3 cases invasive squamous cell carcinoma could not be excluded with certainty). In total, 19 patients (19/38; 50%) were positive for either low-risk human papillomavirus (LR-HPV) or high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) or both (3 were positive for both LR-HPV and HR-HPV, 12 patients for only LR-HPV, and 4 for only HR-HPV). Of the 19 patients that were negative for both LR-HPV and HR-HPV, 9 of 19 (47.4%) patients had associated squamous cell carcinoma. Of the 12 patients with only LR-HPV, 4 (33.3%) had associated squamous cell carcinoma (either invasive or in situ). Of the 7 patients with HR-HPV (with or without LR-HPV), 4 (57.1%) has associated squamous cell carcinoma. In summary, condyloma acuminatum of the urinary bladder shows a strong association with squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder, regardless of the condyloma’s HPV in situ hybridization results. Immunosuppression is associated with condylomas of the bladder. It is important to distinguish bladder condylomas from papillary urothelial carcinoma, given their different risks for panurothelial disease and risk of squamous cell carcinoma. Recognition of bladder condylomas histologically is often challenging given their rarity, and that they can be negative for both LR-HPV and HR-HPV. The lack of a history of other anogenital human papillomavirus–related lesions further increases the difficulty in establishing the correct diagnosis. Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.