Original ArticlesPD-L1 and PD-L2 Are Differentially Expressed by Macrophages or Tumor Cells in Primary Cutaneous Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma, Leg TypeMenguy, Sarah MD*,†; Prochazkova-Carlotti, Martina PhD*; Beylot-Barry, Marie MD, PhD*,‡; Saltel, Fréderic PhD§; Vergier, Béatrice MD, PhD*,†; Merlio, Jean-Philippe MD, PhD*,∥; Pham-Ledard, Anne MD, PhD*,‡Author Information *INSERM U1053, Team 3 Oncogenesis of Cutaneous Lymphomas §INSERM U1053, Team 1 Liver Cancer and Tumor Invasion, University of Bordeaux †Pathology Department ‡Dermatology Department ∥Tumor Biology and Tumor Bank Department, CHU Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France Supported by Société Française de Dermatologie and the Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale (41078). Conflicts of Interest and Source of Funding: The authors have disclosed that they have no significant relationships with, or financial interest in, any commercial companies pertaining to this article. Correspondence: Anne Pham-Ledard, MD, PhD, INSERM U1053, Team 3, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux 33076, France (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). The American Journal of Surgical Pathology: March 2018 - Volume 42 - Issue 3 - p 326-334 doi: 10.1097/PAS.0000000000000983 Buy Metrics Abstract As checkpoint molecules’ inhibition may represent a therapeutic option in relapsing cases, we assessed programmed death ligands’ (PD-L1/PD-L2) expression in a series of 29 primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg-type (PCDLBCL-LT) cases. Double immunostaining for either PD-L1 or PD-L2 was associated either with PAX5 staining to evaluate tumor cells or with CD68 or CD163 staining for macrophages. The microenvironment of PCDLBCL-LT was characterized by immunostainings for CD3 (tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes), FOXP3 (regulatory T cells), programmed cell death-1, and CD33 (myeloid-derived suppressor cells). The 9p24.1 locus encoding for PD-L1/PD-L2 was evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization. A PD-L1 expression was observed in all cases. However, double staining with PD-L1/PAX5 identified only 1 case harboring PD-L1 expression by tumor cells. All cases displayed PD-L1 expression by numerous immune cells, characterized as CD68+ CD163+ M2 macrophages. A normal fluorescence in situ hybridization pattern was observed in 21 of 26 cases. Three cases (11.5%) harbored a low polysomy status including the case with PD-L1 expression by tumor cells. Interestingly, 2 cases (7.7%) exhibited a PD-L1/PD-L2 locus break-apart pattern, and PD-L2 expression by tumor cells was observed. PD-L2 expression by tumor cells was not observed in the 24 cases without 9p24.1 rearrangement. Treating patients with relapsing PCDLBCL-LT by using immune checkpoint inhibitors may have an indirect effect through immune cells, except in rare cases with 9p24.1 rearrangement leading to PD-L2 expression by tumor cells. Reprogramming tumor-associated macrophages with anticancer therapies is appealing in such lymphoma subtypes wherein M2 macrophages represent the majority of immune cells. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.