Pancreatic acinar cystadenomas (ACAs) are rare cystic lesions showing acinar differentiation with benign outcome. Although debated, ACAs are favored to be neoplastic and potentially the benign counterpart of acinar cystadenocarcinoma. We present the largest single institution series to date comprising 10 cases. The mean age was 49 years with a female predominance (M:F=1:2.3). Abdominal/flank pain was the most common presentation (n=6). Serum amylase/lipase and cyst fluid amylase were often elevated. All lesions had a benign outcome on follow-up (5 to 67 mo). The lesions were unilocular (n=3) or multilocular (n=7) with mean size of 3.8 cm (range, 2.9 to 5.0 cm) and 5.1 cm (range, 2.0 to 7.5 cm), respectively. Eight lesions were unifocal with locations as follows: head (n=2), head/neck (n=2), body (n=1), tail (n=1), predominantly extrapancreatic with a microscopic intrapancreatic component (n=1), and unspecified location (n=1). Two lesions were multifocal, involving the head/uncinate/body and pancreatic head, respectively. Two aspects of ACAs that may represent a diagnostic pitfall include the propensity for acinar epithelium to appear as nondescript flat/cuboidal epithelium (trypsin/chymotrypsin immunopositive) and epithelial heterogeneity, with focal mucinous and squamous epithelium, the latter particularly in multilocular variants. In addition, 2 cases with intracystic nodules were observed. Array comparative genomic hybridization performed on 1 of these cases showed multiple chromosomal gains involving 1p, 3p, 5q, 6p, 7q, 8, 10q, 11, 14, 20, and X. These findings provide preliminary evidence that ACAs represent a cystic neoplastic lesion.