Primary choriocarcinoma of the anterior mediastinum is by far the rarest and most controversial form of extragonadal germ cell tumor. A clinicopathologic study of eight primary mediastinal neoplasms bearing the histopathologic and immunohistochemical features of choriocarcinoma is presented. The patients were all men between the ages of 21 and 63 years (mean, 42 years). Clinical symptoms included shortness of breath, chest pain, cough, and superior vena cava syndrome; one patient also had gynecomastia. All patients presented with large anterior mediastinal masses on chest radiographs that measured an average of 10 cm in greatest diameter. Grossly, the tumors were described as large, soft, extensively hemorrhagic, and with foci of necrosis. Histologically, they were characterized by a dual cell population composed of cytotrophoblastic cells with uniform, round nuclei, clear cytoplasm, and prominent nucleoli admixed with large, multinucleated syncytiotrophoblastic cells with bizarre nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically, the tumors were notable for strong keratin and β-human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) positivity. Seven patients presented at the time of diagnosis with thoracic and extrathoracic (liver, adrenal, kidney, and spleen) metastases. In one case, the tumor was entirely confined to the mediastinum. All patients died over a period of 1 to 2 months. Complete autopsies were performed in all cases; none of the patients showed evidence of a testicular tumor or scar after thorough examination of the testes on serial sectioning. The present cases demonstrate the widespread distribution of germ cells in the human body and lend further support to the existence of primary extragonadal choriocarcinoma arising in the thymic region.