Invited Literature Review: PDF OnlyPrevalence, Pathophysiology, Diagnostic Modalities and Treatment Options for Dysphagia in Critically Ill PatientsBrodsky, Martin B. PhD, ScM, CCC-SLP1,2; Nollet, Joeke L. MD, MSc3; Spronk, Peter E. MD, PhD4; González-Fernández, Marlís MD, PhD1Author Information 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 2Outcomes After Critical Illness and Surgery Research Group, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 3Radboud university medical center, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Nijmegen, The Netherlands 4Gelre Hospitals, Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Expertise Center for Intensive care Rehabilitation Apeldoorn (ExpIRA), Apeldoorn, The Netherlands Funding: No funding was received for the preparation of this manuscript. Address correspondence to: Marlís González-Fernández, M.D., Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 N. Wolfe St. – Phipps 174, Baltimore, MD 21287, (410) 502-2438, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation: April 16, 2020 - Volume Publish Ahead of Print - Issue - doi: 10.1097/PHM.0000000000001440 Free PAP Metrics Abstract Post-extubation dysphagia (PED) may impose a substantial burden on ICU patients and health care systems. Approximately 517,000 patients survive mechanical ventilation during critical care annually. Reports of PED prevalence are highly variable ranging between 3% and 93%. Of great concern is aspiration leading to the development of aspiration pneumonia when patients resume oral feeding. Screening for aspiration with a water swallow test has been reported to be positive for 12% of patients in the ICU post-extubation. This review aims to increase awareness of PED and provide an updated overview of the current knowledge regarding prevalence, pathophysiology, diagnostic modalities, and treatment options. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.