Education & AdministrationFactors Influencing Fellowship Decision Making During Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation ResidencyYang, Aaron Jay MD; Haring, R. Sterling DO, MPH; Swenson, Theodora L. MD; Jain, Nitin B. MD, MSPHAuthor Information From the Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee (AJY, RSH, TLS, NBJ); and University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (NBJ). All correspondence should be addressed to: Aaron Jay Yang, MD, 2201 Children’s Way, Suite 1318, Nashville, TN 37212. R. Sterling Haring and Theodora L. Swenson are in training. Financial disclosure statements have been obtained, and no conflicts of interest have been reported by the authors or by any individuals in control of the content of this article. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation: April 2021 - Volume 100 - Issue 4 - p 396-401 doi: 10.1097/PHM.0000000000001608 Buy Metrics Abstract Previous surveys have demonstrated an increasing trend among graduating physiatry residents who desired to pursue a subspecialty fellowship. There has been sparse information on whether residents start their training with a subspecialty interest in mind and what factors influenced them to choose a fellowship. This article describes a prospective survey in the 2019–2020 academic year in which 175 responses were collected representing 65 (78.3%) of the 83 physical medicine and rehabilitation programs with graduating residents. Nearly 3 in 4 (73.7%, 129/175) reported matching into a fellowship, and among those, 79.8% (103/129) had matched into a pain, spine, or sports medicine fellowship. At the start of residency, 62.3% (109/175) were planning to pursue a fellowship, with 54.9% (96/175) planning to focus on either pain, sports, or spine medicine. Most respondents (72.2%) did not change their initial subspecialty focus during their residency training. Forty-six percent agreed that their anticipated subspecialty influenced their choice of residency program. The results of this survey demonstrate that most graduating residents are matriculating into fellowship training with pain, spine, and/or sports medicine being among the top choices. These results underscore the importance of subspecialty interests of trainees at the start of their residency and how training may influence their subspecialty interest. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.