Education & AdministrationSonographic Tracking of the Lower Limb Peripheral Nerves A Pictorial Essay and Video DemonstrationHung, Chen-Yu MD; Hsiao, Ming-Yen MD; Özçakar, Levent MD; Chang, Ke-Vin MD, PhD; Wu, Chueh-Hung MD; Wang, Tyng-Guey MD; Chen, Wen-Shiang MD, PhDAuthor Information From the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and Community and Geriatric Research Center, Bei-Hu Branch, Taipei, Taiwan (C-YH, K-VC); Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Taiwan University Hospital, Bei-Hu Branch, Taipei, Taiwan (K-VC); Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Hacettepe University Medical School, Ankara, Turkey (LÖ); and Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (M-YH, C-HW, T-GW, W-SC). All correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed to: Ke-Vin Chang, MD, PhD, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and Community and Geriatric Research Center, National Taiwan University Hospital, Bei-Hu Branch and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan. Financial disclosure statements have been obtained, and no conflicts of interest have been reported by the authors or by any individuals in control of the content of this article. Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal’s Web site (www.ajpmr.com). American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation: September 2016 - Volume 95 - Issue 9 - p 698-708 doi: 10.1097/PHM.0000000000000463 Buy SDC Metrics Abstract Compared with the upper limbs, sonographic tracking of peripheral nerves in the lower limbs is more challenging. The overlying muscles are larger, hindering visualization of the deeply embedded nerves by using a linear transducer. The use of a curvilinear transducer—providing an extended view with better penetration for the field of interest—may be useful for scanning the nerves in the hip and thigh. Application of the Doppler mode helps localization of the target nerve by identifying the accompanying vessels. Aiming to demonstrate the relevant tracking techniques, the present article comprises a series of ultrasound images and videos showing how to scan the nerves in the lower limb, that is, femoral, obturator, pudendal, lateral femoral cutaneous, sciatic, saphenous, sural, tibial, and peroneal nerves. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.