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Smartphone-Based Visual Feedback Trunk Control Training Using a Gyroscope and Mirroring Technology for Stroke Patients: Single-blinded, Randomized Clinical Trial of Efficacy and Feasibility

Shin, Doo Chul PT, PhD; Song, Chang Ho PT, PhD

American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation: May 2016 - Volume 95 - Issue 5 - p 319–329
doi: 10.1097/PHM.0000000000000447
Original Research Articles CME Article . 2016 Series . Number 5
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Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the preliminary efficacy and feasibility of smartphone-based visual feedback trunk control training (SPVFTCT) for improving balance and trunk performance in stroke patients.

Design Twenty-four patients who had experienced a stroke more than 6 months previously and could sit and walk independently participated in the study. The participants were allocated to a SPVFTCT (n = 12) or to a control group (n = 12). Both groups completed five 80-minute sessions per week of conventional rehabilitation for 4 weeks. The SPVFTCT group additionally received three 20-minute sessions per week of SPVFTCT for 4 weeks. The outcome was assessed using static balance assessment, the modified functional reach test, the timed up and go test, and the trunk impairment scale. Feasibility of SPVFTCT was evaluated by retention, adherence, acceptability, and safety.

Results The static balance assessment, modified functional reach test, timed up and go test, and trunk impairment scale scores in the SPVFTCT group improved significantly compared to those in the control group (P < 0.05). In the SPVFTCT group, retention and adherence rates were 100% and 97%, respectively. All participants reported that SPVFTCT was enjoyable, easy to use, and helpful for their recovery.

Conclusions The SPVFTCT approach is a feasible method to improve balance and trunk performance in stroke patients.

To Claim CME Credits: Complete the self-assessment activity and evaluation online at http://www.physiatry.org/JournalCME

CME Objectives: Upon completion of this article, the reader should be able to: (1) Understand the role of trunk control in postural stability and functional improvement; (2) Describe the benefits of smartphone-based visual feedback trunk control training (SPVFTCT); and (3)Discuss the feasibility of incorporating smartphone-based visual feedback trunk control training in stroke rehabilitation.

Level: Advanced

Accreditation: The Association of Academic Physiatrists is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The Association of Academic Physiatrists designates this activity for a maximum of 1.5 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s). Physicians should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

Supplemental digital content is available in the text.

From the Department of Physical Therapy, Sahmyook University College of Health Science, Seoul, Korea.

All correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed to: Chang Ho Song, PT, PhD, Department of Physical Therapy, Sahmyook University College of Health Science, 26-21, Gongneung2-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 139-742.

Financial disclosure statements have been obtained, and no conflicts of interest have been reported by the authors or by any individuals in control of the content of this article.

Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal’s Web site (www.ajpmr.com).

Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.