Original Research ArticlesDifferential Impact and Use of a Telehealth Intervention by Persons with MS or SCIMercier, Hannah W. MS; Ni, Pensheng MD; Houlihan, Bethlyn V. MA; Jette, Alan M. PhDAuthor Information From the MGH Institute of Health Professions, Boston, Massachusetts (HWM, AMJ); New England Regional Spinal Cord Injury Center, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (HWM, BVH, AMJ); and Health and Disability Research Institute, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (PN, AMJ). All correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed to: Hannah W. Mercier, MS, New England Regional Spinal Cord Injury Center, Boston University Medical Center, 715 Albany St, Talbot 5 W, Boston, MA 02118. Supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Grant no. 5R01DD000155), the Department of Health and Human Services, and the National Institute of Disability and Rehabilitation Research (Grant no. H133N120002). The authors have nothing to disclose. Financial disclosure statements have been obtained, and no conflicts of interest have been reported by the authors or by any individuals in control of the content of this article. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation: November 2015 - Volume 94 - Issue 11 - p 987-999 doi: 10.1097/PHM.0000000000000291 Buy Metrics Abstract Objective The objective of this study was to compare outcomes and patterns of engaging with a telehealth intervention (CareCall) by adult wheelchair users with severe mobility limitations with a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) or spinal cord injury (SCI). Design The design of this study is a secondary analysis from a pilot randomized controlled trial with 106 participants with SCI and 36 participants with MS. Results General linear model results showed that an interaction between baseline depression score and study group significantly predicted reduced depression at 6 mos for subjects with both diagnoses (P = 0.01). For those with MS, CareCall increased participants’ physical independence (P < 0.001). No statistically significant differences in skin integrity were found between study groups for subjects with either diagnosis. All participants were similarly satisfied with CareCall, although those with MS engaged in almost double the amount of calls per person than those with SCI (P = 0.005). Those with SCI missed more calls (P < 0.001) and required more extensive support from a nurse (P = 0.006) than those with MS. Conclusion An interactive telephone intervention was effective in reducing depression in adult wheelchair users with either MS or SCI, and in increasing health care access and physical independence for those with a diagnosis of MS. Future research should aim to enhance the efficacy of such an intervention for participants with SCI. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.