Case ReportAutonomic Dysreflexia and Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy SyndromeMatias, Ana Catarina, MD; Rocha, João, MD; Cerqueira, Maria Emília, MD; Pereira, João Manuel, MDAuthor Information From the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department (ACM, MEC) and the Neurology Department (JMR, JMP), Hospital de Braga, Braga, Portugal. All correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed to: Ana Catarina Matias, MD, Rua do Agro, PMR Department, Hospital de Braga, Sete Fontes 4710-243 Braga, Portugal. Financial disclosure statements have been obtained, and no conflicts of interest have been reported by the authors or by any individuals in control of the content of this article. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation: May 2013 - Volume 92 - Issue 5 - p 453-458 doi: 10.1097/PHM.0b013e3182744889 Buy Metrics Abstract ABSTRACT Autonomic dysreflexia is a syndrome of massive imbalanced reflex sympathetic discharge in patients who had a spinal cord injury above the splanchnic sympathetic outflow resulting in a sudden increase in blood pressure. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) refers to a clinicoradiologic entity characterized by headache, consciousness impairment, visual disturbances, seizures, and posterior transient changes on neuroimaging (cerebral vasogenic edema). Hypertension is a common cause of PRES. The authors describe two case reports of patients with tetraplegia who developed PRES after an autonomic dysreflexia episode. One of them had recurrence of PRES in a similar clinical context. The authors discuss further aspects of PRES and its recurrence, which seems to be unusual particularly after autonomic dysreflexia. © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.