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Manual and Oral Apraxia in Acute Stroke, Frequency and Influence on Functional Outcome: The Copenhagen Stroke Study

Pedersen, Palle M/oller DMSci; J/orgensen, Henrik Stig MD, DMSci; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter MD; Nakayama, Hirofumi MD, PhD; Raaschou, Hans Otto MD; Olsen, Tom Skyh/oj MD, DMSci

American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: September 2001 - Volume 80 - Issue 9 - p 685-692
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Pedersen PM, J/orgensen HS, Kammersgaard LP, Nakayama H, Raaschou HO, Olsen TS: Manual and oral apraxia in acute stroke, frequency and influence on functional outcome: the Copenhagen Stroke Study. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2001;80:685–692.

Objectives: To determine the frequency of manual and oral apraxia in acute stroke and to examine the influence of these symptoms on functional outcome.

Design: Seven hundred seventy six unselected, acute stroke patients who were admitted within seven days of stroke onset with unimpaired consciousness were included. If possible, the patients were assessed for manual and oral apraxia on acute admission. Neurologic stroke severity including aphasia was assessed with the Scandinavian Stroke Scale, and activities of daily living function was assessed with the Barthel Index. All patients completed their rehabilitation in the same large stroke unit.

Results: Six hundred eighteen patients could cooperate with the apraxia assessments. Manual apraxia was found in 7% of subjects (10% in left and 4% in right hemispheric stroke; χ2= 9.0;P = 0.003). Oral apraxia was found in 6% (9% in left and 4% in right hemispheric stroke; χ2= 5.4;P = 0.02). Both manual and oral apraxia were related to increasing stroke severity, and manual, but not oral, apraxia was associated with increasing age. There was no gender difference in frequency of apraxia. Patients with either type of apraxia had temporal lobe involvement more often than patients without. When analyzed with multiple linear and logistic regression analyses, neither manual nor oral apraxia had any independent influence on functional outcome.

Conclusion: Apraxia is significantly less frequent in unselected patients with acute stroke than has previously been assumed and has no independent negative influence on functional outcome.

From the Department of Neurology (PMP, HSJ, LPK), Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; the Department of Internal Medicine (HN), Osaka National Hospital, Osaka, Japan; the Department of Radiology (HOR), Hiller/od Hospital, Hillerød, Denmark; and the Department of Neurology (TSO), Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Supported, in part, by grants from the Danish Aphasia and Stroke Association (Hjernesagen), the Danish Health Foundation, the Danish Heart Foundation, Ebba Celinders Foundation, and the Gangsted Foundation.

All correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed to Palle M. Pedersen, DMSci, Department of Neurology, Bispebjerg Hospital, 23 Bispebjerg Bakke, DK-2400 Copenhagen, Denmark.

© 2001 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.