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1.5 CE Test Hours

HIV Update

An Epidemic Transformed

Contrada, Emily

AJN The American Journal of Nursing: September 2019 - Volume 119 - Issue 9 - p 40
doi: 10.1097/
Feature Articles
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  • LPD will award 1.5 contact hours for this continuing nursing education (CNE) activity. LPD is accredited as a provider of CNE by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation.
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  • The registration fee for this test is $17.95.
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To provide information about HIV epidemiology, the current state of HIV treatment and prevention, and common comorbidities of people living with HIV (PLWH) who are over age 50.

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After completing this continuing education activity, you should be able to

  • describe the current epidemiology data for PLWH.
  • summarize the available options for treating HIV infection.
  • explain the comorbidity risks and protocols for both pre- and postexposure HIV prophylaxis.
  1. The vast majority of women who have HIV infection acquired it through
    1. homosexual sex.
    2. heterosexual sex.
    3. unsafe injection practices.
  2. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which of the following racial or ethnic groups had the highest incidence of HIV infection in 2015?
    1. blacks
    2. whites
    3. Hispanics or Latinos
  3. Despite a decline in overall incidence of HIV infection, incidence has increased in which of the following racial or ethnic groups?
    1. Eastern Europeans
    2. blacks
    3. Asians
  4. Hess and colleagues reported that the estimated lifetime risk of acquiring HIV is 1 in 5 among men who have sex with men in which of the following ethnic groups?
    1. blacks
    2. whites
    3. Hispanics or Latinos
  5. In 2016, adults in which of the following age groups accounted for the largest percentage of new HIV infections in the United States and its 6 dependent areas?
    1. 20 through 29 years
    2. 30 through 49 years
    3. 50 years and older
  6. At the end of 2016, which of the following countries had achieved the 90–90–90 targets of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS?
    1. Norway
    2. Cambodia
    3. the United States
  7. According to 2018 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services guidelines, antiretroviral therapy (ART) is now recommended
    1. when CD4+ cell counts are below 350 cells/mm3.
    2. when the viral load is more than 250 copies/mL.
    3. regardless of CD4+ cell count or viral load.
  8. Initially for most PLWH, ART has included 2 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) plus a drug from another class, usually
    1. a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI).
    2. an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI).
    3. a protease inhibitor.
  9. The first NRTI-sparing, single-tablet regimen approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a replacement ART for PLWH whose viral loads were undetectable combines dolutegravir with
    1. rilpivirine.
    2. doravirine.
    3. etravirine.
  10. Which of the following is one of the 2 most common pharmacokinetic boosting agents used to reduce dosing frequency, often to once a day?
    1. tipranavir
    2. cobicistat
    3. maraviroc
  11. The most common adverse effect of the CD4-directed postattachment HIV-1 inhibitor ibalizumab is
    1. fatigue.
    2. pyrexia.
    3. diarrhea.
  12. The newest FDA-approved medication for treating HIV infection is a single-tablet regimen that combines dolutegravir with
    1. stavudine.
    2. lamivudine.
    3. emtricitabine.
  13. Compared with other NRTIs, which medication in that class has been associated with higher rates of cardiovascular events?
    1. abacavir
    2. didanosine
    3. tenofovir alafenamide
  14. According to Coelho and colleagues, which of the following diagnostic tests may be most accurate in identifying type 2 diabetes in PLWH?
    1. glycated hemoglobin test
    2. oral glucose tolerance testing
    3. serial fasting blood glucose monitoring
  15. According to Engels and colleagues, besides the AIDS-defining cancers such as Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, lung cancer and which other type of cancer account for a large proportion of cancer-related deaths in PLWH?
    1. gastric
    2. kidney
    3. liver
  16. Which of the following treatment options remains the greatest protection against HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder?
    1. ART
    2. exercise
    3. memantine
  17. Currently, the only FDA-approved form of preexposure prophylaxis for HIV is a single-tablet regimen containing the NRTIs tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and
    1. abacavir.
    2. zidovudine.
    3. emtricitabine.
  18. Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) involves
    1. taking ART for 48 days following HIV exposure.
    2. initiating treatment no more than 72 hours after HIV exposure.
    3. taking tenofovir alafenamide and lamivudine with an entry inhibitor.
  19. After conducting baseline laboratory studies upon initiating PEP, monitoring and follow-up HIV testing is recommended at 4 weeks and again at how many weeks after treatment begins?
    1. 12
    2. 16
    3. 20
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