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1 CE Test Hour

Addressing Implicit Bias in Nursing

A Review

Contrada, Emily

AJN The American Journal of Nursing: July 2019 - Volume 119 - Issue 7 - p 44
doi: 10.1097/01.NAJ.0000569344.35283.52
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Addressing Implicit Bias in Nursing: A Review


To provide information on various types of health care disparities and how implicit biases contribute to these disparities.

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After completing this continuing education activity, you should be able to

  • summarize how implicit biases contribute to health care disparities.
  • outline strategies to overcome implicit biases.
  1. Implicit bias is defined as
    1. mental shortcuts that help people sum up and respond to situations quickly.
    2. unconscious attitudes that precipitate unintentional discriminatory behavior.
    3. set ideas that are deliberate and often inaccurate about what someone is like.
  2. 2. A 2003 report from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) confirmed that patients belonging to racial and ethnic minority groups
    1. encounter a lack of health care access.
    2. receive adequate but not superior health care services.
    3. have barriers to health care similar to impoverished populations.
  3. In addition to the elimination of health care disparities, 3 recent publications by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services include which of the following among their overarching goals?
    1. integration of complementary therapies
    2. better pain management
    3. increased longevity
  4. The Joint Commission and the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) urge health care providers to evaluate and address disparities
    1. in their personal practices.
    2. among affiliated professional groups.
    3. with their local congressional representatives.
  5. The IOM reported that one of the contributing factors to U.S. health care disparities is
    1. scarce health care facilities in underserved communities.
    2. lack of clinician education in thorough assessment and diagnosis.
    3. clinician bias toward patients of racial, ethnic, or cultural minorities.
  6. Implicit biases among health care providers are associated with which of the following negative effects on patient care?
    1. delay in discharging patients
    2. less time involved in patient care
    3. lack of referrals for specialty care
  7. Heuristics are defined as
    1. mental shortcuts that help people sum up and respond to situations quickly.
    2. unconscious attitudes that precipitate unintentional discriminatory behavior.
    3. set ideas, often inaccurate, that people have about what someone or something is like.
  8. Stereotypes are often pejorative characterizations of groups of people that are
    1. a result of international travel.
    2. consciously accepted and practiced.
    3. based on limited previous encounters.
  9. Despite an individual's commitment to egalitarian values, implicit biases may be triggered by hidden perceptions, attitudes, or
    1. memories.
    2. activities.
    3. partners.
  10. Waller and colleagues reported that nurses may be prone to implicit bias when caring for patients who are
    1. poor.
    2. obese.
    3. illiterate.
  11. FitzGerald and Hurst suggested that, compared with the population at large, implicit bias occurred among health care providers
    1. less often.
    2. more often.
    3. at about the same rate.
  12. In their systematic review, Hall and colleagues found that most health care providers harbor implicit bias toward people
    1. of color.
    2. who are elderly.
    3. who have mental illness.
  13. Among the following, provider racial bias most adversely affects
    1. recovery from an acute illness.
    2. social integration and life satisfaction.
    3. mitigation of the symptoms of chronic illness.
  14. Which of the following self-interventions to mitigate implicit bias is specifically related to mindfulness and perspective taking?
    1. counterstereotypic imaging
    2. partnership building
    3. emotional regulation
  15. The IHI recommends reducing bias through individuation, which is
    1. developing relationships with members of a different group.
    2. working with patients as equals toward a common goal.
    3. learning about the personal history of the individual.
  16. What does the T in the S.T.O.P. mindfulness technique stand for?
    1. Take some slow, deep breaths.
    2. Teach yourself to process emotional reactions.
    3. Think about the values affecting the patient encounter.
  17. The key to developing a therapeutic relationship with a patient is
    1. viewing the patient as a collaborative partner.
    2. providing culturally competent care.
    3. true caring for the patient.
  18. Which of the following strategies for mitigating implicit bias challenges nurses to understand what patients are thinking and feeling, thus seeing their illness through their eyes?
    1. individuation
    2. perspective taking
    3. partnership building
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