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1.5 CE Test Hours

Original Research

Midlife Hypertension and Hypercholesterolemia in Relation to Cognitive Function Later in Life in Black Women

Contrada, Emily

AJN The American Journal of Nursing: February 2019 - Volume 119 - Issue 2 - p 31
doi: 10.1097/01.NAJ.0000553180.74707.31
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Midlife Hypertension and Hypercholesterolemia in Relation to Cognitive Function Later in Life in Black Women

GENERAL PURPOSE:

To present the details of a study conducted to evaluate midlife hypertension and hypercholesterolemia in relation to cognitive function later in life among black women.

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LEARNING OBJECTIVES/OUTCOMES:

After completing this continuing education activity, you should be able to

  • discuss the theoretical framework and tools used in this study.
  • outline the authors’ findings.
  • summarize recommendations for interventions and future research.
  1. In the Neuman Systems Model, which the authors used as the theoretical framework for their study, each patient has 5 dimensions: physiological, psychological, sociocultural, developmental, and
    1. environmental.
    2. emotional.
    3. spiritual.
  2. In the Neuman Systems Model, each patient is considered to exist as a system that can be affected by internal stressors, external stressors, and
    1. various ways of coping with them.
    2. interactions between them.
    3. relevant defense mechanisms.
  3. An example of an internal stressor is
    1. a genetic predisposition to vascular disease.
    2. inadequate physical activity.
    3. poor dietary habits.
  4. In the authors’ study, which of the following tools was used to measure the participants’ immediate and delayed recall testing?
    1. Mini-Mental State Exam
    2. East Boston Memory Test
    3. Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status
  5. Which of the following cognitive outcomes did the authors use to represent executive function?
    1. global composite score
    2. verbal memory score
    3. category fluency score
  6. The study findings indicated that, compared with participants without a history of hypertension, those with such history were
    1. slightly younger.
    2. more likely to be overweight.
    3. more likely to have a bachelor's RN degree.
  7. Compared with participants without a history of hypercholesterolemia, those with such history were
    1. slightly older.
    2. more likely to drink alcohol.
    3. more likely to report a moderate level of physical activity.
  8. About half of the participants with hypertension reported
    1. taking no antihypertensive medication.
    2. taking at least 1 antihypertensive medication.
    3. planning to ask their provider about antihypertensive medication.
  9. Compared with participants without a history of hypertension, those with such history appeared to have
    1. higher cognitive function.
    2. about the same cognitive function.
    3. lower cognitive function.
  10. Compared with participants without hypercholesterolemia, those with such history had
    1. somewhat poorer executive function.
    2. higher global function.
    3. slightly better executive function.
  11. In the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study, after adjusting for demographic, lifestyle, and health factors in multivariable models, the researchers found that which of the following were each correlated with lower cognitive function scores?
    1. lower systolic and diastolic blood pressures
    2. higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures
    3. higher systolic and lower diastolic blood pressures
  12. In the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, after adjusting for multiple potential confounders, the researchers found that, compared with normal blood pressure, hypertension at midlife was associated with
    1. no cognitive decline.
    2. milder cognitive decline.
    3. steeper cognitive decline.
  13. After controlling for age, sex, and education in a small study conducted among African Americans, Sims and colleagues reported that higher triglyceride levels in middle age were associated with
    1. lower cognitive scores.
    2. no change in cognitive scores.
    3. higher cognitive scores.
  14. According to the Neuman Systems Model, primary interventions for preventing or reducing stressors should include
    1. regular blood pressure self-monitoring.
    2. education about smoking cessation.
    3. lifestyle changes after overt vascular events.
  15. Secondary interventions should include
    1. a structured program for weight reduction.
    2. education about a heart-healthy diet.
    3. cholesterol screening by clinicians.
  16. According to the Neuman Systems Model, interventions after a diagnosis of hypertension or hypercholesterolemia can strengthen the patient's
    1. overall resilience.
    2. lines of resistance.
    3. knowledge base.
  17. Tertiary interventions should include education about
    1. medication changes.
    2. cognitive function.
    3. genetic predisposition.
  18. Limitations of the authors’ study included
    1. inadequate data-analysis methods.
    2. an inconsistent pattern of associations.
    3. lack of findings’ generalizability to black men.
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