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1 CE Test Hour

Managing Movement Disorders

A Clinical Review

Contrada, Emily

AJN The American Journal of Nursing: December 2018 - Volume 118 - Issue 12 - p 41,42
doi: 10.1097/01.NAJ.0000549667.28580.55
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Managing Movement Disorders: A Clinical Review

GENERAL PURPOSE:

To provide information about methods to assess muscle tightness, spasticity, and clonus.

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LEARNING OBJECTIVES/OUTCOMES:

After completing this continuing education activity, you should be able to

  • outline methods to assess various muscle disorders.
  • distinguish the pathophysiology underlying each of these disorders.
  • identify the recommended treatments for these disorders.
  1. Which of the following movement disorders is myogenic?
    1. clonus
    2. spasticity
    3. muscle tightness
  2. Which of the following types of skeletal muscle contractions allows people to lift objects?
    1. concentric
    2. eccentric
    3. isometric
  3. Which of the following types of skeletal muscle contractions commonly leads to skeletal muscle injuries?
    1. concentric
    2. eccentric
    3. isometric
  4. The muscle-specific stem cells that proliferate after a muscle strain, fuse into myotubes, and fill in the tear are
    1. sarcomeres.
    2. costameres.
    3. satellite cells.
  5. After an acute injury, the usual recommendation is to
    1. apply ice for the first 24 hours and heat later.
    2. apply heat for the first 24 hours and ice later.
    3. alternate ice and heat for the first 24 hours.
  6. When using ice after an acute injury, patients should apply it in increments of
    1. 5 to 10 minutes.
    2. 15 to 20 minutes.
    3. 25 to 30 minutes.
  7. When using heat to relieve chronic muscle tightness, patients should apply it in increments of
    1. 10 to 15 minutes.
    2. 20 to 25 minutes.
    3. 30 to 35 minutes.
  8. Which of the following medications is prescribed to manage muscle tightness?
    1. tizanidine
    2. dantrolene
    3. cyclobenzaprine
  9. Chronic muscle tightness can result in
    1. spasticity.
    2. contractures.
    3. focal seizures.
  10. Which of the following may cause spasticity?
    1. sustained postures
    2. skeletal trauma
    3. multiple sclerosis
  11. The annual incidence of lower limb spasticity is lowest in patients with which of the following?
    1. stroke
    2. spinal cord injury
    3. traumatic brain injury
  12. Some degree of spasticity may benefit certain patients because it can help with
    1. ambulation.
    2. reducing pain.
    3. relieving paresthesias.
  13. Spasticity typically results from
    1. alterations in the forces generated during muscle contraction.
    2. depolarization of the spindles that trigger action potentials.
    3. disruption of upper motor neuronal pathways.
  14. Zorowitz and colleagues noted that which of the following can exacerbate the symptoms of spasticity?
    1. gastroesophageal reflux
    2. pressure injuries
    3. diarrhea
  15. The Ashworth scale was developed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of which of the following medications in reducing spasticity?
    1. carisoprodol
    2. dantrolene
    3. baclofen
  16. Adverse effects of centrally acting antispasmodic medications include
    1. insomnia.
    2. leukopenia.
    3. dry mouth.
  17. Good candidates for an intrathecal baclofen pump are patients who
    1. require higher baclofen doses.
    2. have upper limb spasticity.
    3. find oral dosing inconvenient.
  18. Clonus is more often induced in which of the following body sites?
    1. jaw
    2. ankles
    3. wrists
  19. With clonus, the first oscillation is always the
    1. longest.
    2. shortest.
    3. same length as the next one.
  20. Clonus can be managed medically with which of the following medications?
    1. cyclobenzaprine
    2. methocarbamol
    3. tizanidine
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