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1.5 CE Test Hours

Too Much Sitting

A Newly Recognized Health Risk

Contrada, Emily

AJN The American Journal of Nursing: September 2018 - Volume 118 - Issue 9 - p 35,49
doi: 10.1097/01.NAJ.0000544949.73334.8e
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Too Much Sitting: A Newly Recognized Health Risk

GENERAL PURPOSE:

To present the details of an integrative literature review examining the evidence on sedentary behavior as an independent health risk for cardiometabolic health conditions, some cancers, and all-cause mortality.

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LEARNING OBJECTIVES/OUTCOMES:

After completing this continuing education activity, you should be able to

  • recognize the effects of sedentary behavior on health.
  • list recommendations for reducing sedentary behavior.
  • describe the outcomes of strategies implemented to reduce sedentary behavior.
  1. Using metabolic equivalents of task (METs) as a unit of measure, in 2011 the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recommended that adults engage weekly in aerobic activities that require an energy expenditure of at least how many METs?
    1. 2
    2. 3
    3. 4
  2. The ACSM recommendations specified at least how many minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity per week?
    1. 75
    2. 90
    3. 150
  3. The ACSM recommendations specified at least how many minutes of vigorous-intensity physical activity per week?
    1. 75
    2. 90
    3. 150
  4. Sedentary behavior generally refers to the waking activities of either sitting or reclining, which involve an energy expenditure of no greater than how many METs?
    1. 0.5
    2. 1.5
    3. 2.5
  5. Healy and colleagues found that adults who took frequent breaks in sedentary time had
    1. no significant changes in blood pressure.
    2. self-reported decreases in stress.
    3. smaller waist circumferences.
  6. According to a study by van der Berg and colleagues, each extra hour of sitting or reclining time was associated with a 39% increased risk of
    1. metabolic syndrome.
    2. lung cancer.
    3. all-cause mortality.
  7. The 2003–2004 and 2005–2006 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys and the 2004–2005 Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study, examining transitional breaks from sedentary to more active states, found average break durations of between
    1. 2 and 3 minutes.
    2. 4 and 5 minutes.
    3. 6 and 7 minutes.
  8. Dunstan and colleagues reported some beneficial metabolic effects from interrupting sedentary time with standing or walking for 2 minutes every
    1. 20 minutes.
    2. 30 minutes.
    3. 40 minutes.
  9. Diaz and colleagues have suggested that interrupting sedentary behavior every 20 to 30 minutes with some physical activity can
    1. increase beneficial hormone production.
    2. contribute to preventing depression.
    3. have cardiometabolic health benefits.
  10. Schmid and Leitzmann's meta-analysis looked at lower and higher durations of daily television viewing time. They found that higher durations of such sedentary time were associated with an increase in the incidence of which of the following types of cancer?
    1. endometrial
    2. ovarian
    3. prostate
  11. Schmid and Leitzmann's meta-analysis also found no increase associated with higher durations of sedentary time in which of the following types of cancer?
    1. lung
    2. colon
    3. kidney
  12. A meta-analysis by Shen and colleagues showed that prolonged sedentary behavior has a statistically significant relationship with the development of which of the following types of cancer?
    1. breast
    2. renal cell
    3. non-Hodgkin lymphoid
  13. Biswas and colleagues demonstrated that a higher volume of sedentary time was independently associated with a greater risk of
    1. musculoskeletal disorders.
    2. cardiovascular disease.
    3. respiratory infections.
  14. Shi and colleagues demonstrated that every additional hour of household physical activity per week was linked to a reduction in cancer risk of
    1. 0.5%.
    2. 1%.
    3. 1.5%.
  15. Chau and colleagues demonstrated that each hour of additional sitting time was linked to a 2% increased risk of
    1. cancer.
    2. type 2 diabetes.
    3. all-cause mortality.
  16. A study by Schmid and colleagues found that replacing 30 minutes of sedentary time with an equal amount of light physical activity was associated with a reduced mortality risk of
    1. 8%.
    2. 14%.
    3. 20%.
  17. According to this article, which of the following innovative approaches may be necessary to effect behavioral change in people who spend a lot of time being sedentary?
    1. Teach them how to set goals and self-monitor.
    2. Encourage an increase in physical activity.
    3. Explain the negative consequences of sedentary behavior.
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