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1 CE Test Hour

Malnutrition in Older Adults

Contrada, Emily

AJN The American Journal of Nursing: March 2018 - Volume 118 - Issue 3 - p 42,43
doi: 10.1097/01.NAJ.0000530936.81242.06
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Figure.

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Malnutrition in Older Adults

GENERAL PURPOSE:

To provide information about cognitive, psychological, social, and economic factors that can affect the nutritional status of older adults.

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LEARNING OBJECTIVES/OUTCOMES:

After completing this educational activity, you should be able to

  • discern the scope of the problem of malnutrition in older adults.
  • list age-related changes that increase the risk of malnutrition in older adults.
  • outline assessment tools and strategies to prevent and address malnutrition in older adults.
  1. More than three-quarters of Americans ages 65 and older assess their health as
    1. poor to average.
    2. average to good.
    3. good to excellent.
  2. According to a 2016 systematic review of studies that screened community-living adults ages 65 and older for malnutrition susceptibility, what percentage are at risk for malnutrition?
    1. nearly 49%
    2. about 65%
    3. up to 83%
  3. Which of the following changes is associated with advanced age?
    1. a loss of muscle tissue
    2. a decrease in body fat
    3. an increase in calorie needs
  4. Which of the following factors, common in advanced age, increases older adults’ risk of dehydration?
    1. enhanced renal function
    2. increased need for protein
    3. decreased perception of thirst
  5. Altered taste in advanced age has little effect on the perception of flavors that are
    1. sour.
    2. sweet.
    3. bitter.
  6. Because of their higher rates of atrophic gastritis, older adults are at increased risk for a deficiency of vitamin
    1. E.
    2. K.
    3. B12
  7. Adults over age 70 require more vitamin
    1. D.
    2. A.
    3. B6.
  8. A study of over 300 nursing home residents found that what percentage of those with advanced dementia had eating problems?
    1. 63%
    2. 72%
    3. 86%
  9. In a survey of homebound older adults, one of the 3 factors most often reported as influencing food choices was
    1. accessibility.
    2. convenience.
    3. nutrition.
  10. One of the 3 factors most often reported as a barrier to food choice in the survey was
    1. following a special diet.
    2. feeling weak or tired.
    3. being unable to cook.
  11. Which of the following nutrition evaluation tools consists of 2 questions, one about recent, unintentional weight loss and one about appetite?
    1. Mini Nutritional Assessment–Short Form
    2. Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool
    3. Malnutrition Screening Tool
  12. Which of the following nutrition evaluation tools consists of 6 questions about food intake, weight loss, mobility, recent psychological stress or acute disease, dementia or depression, and body mass index (BMI)?
    1. Mini Nutritional Assessment–Short Form
    2. Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool
    3. Malnutrition Screening Tool
  13. Older adults in long-term care facilities might benefit from a BMI cutoff for underweight that, compared with the cutoff used by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, is
    1. significantly lower.
    2. slightly lower.
    3. higher.
  14. Which of the following interdisciplinary team members should evaluate older adults for swallowing difficulties?
    1. dentist
    2. speech and language pathologist
    3. registered dietitian nutritionist
  15. Of seniors eligible for food assistance through the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, how many participated in fiscal year 2014?
    1. fewer than half
    2. about two-thirds
    3. nearly three-quarters
  16. Research suggests that which of the following may improve the food intake of older adults in health care communities?
    1. encouraging conversation between staff members
    2. assisting seniors with eating in their rooms
    3. playing familiar music during meals
  17. Which of the following is a recommendation for aides and volunteers who feed residents of health care communities?
    1. Interact with the resident during the meal.
    2. Mix foods of different consistencies together.
    3. Avoid reminding the resident to chew and swallow.
  18. Interventions to reduce the risk of malnutrition for Ms. Jackson, the patient in the case study, included all of the following except
    1. arranging for dental care.
    2. providing room service meals.
    3. assessing her deteriorating mental status.
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