Journal Logo

Feature Articles

3 CE Test Hours

‘I Am a Nurse’

Oral Histories of African Nurses

Contrada, Emily

AJN The American Journal of Nursing: August 2015 - Volume 115 - Issue 8 - p 33,42
doi: 10.1097/01.NAJ.0000470397.61855.84


  • To take the test online, go to our secure Web site at .
  • To use the form provided in this issue, record your answers in the test answer section of the CE enrollment form below. Each question has only one correct answer. You may make copies of the form.
  • Complete the registration information and course evaluation. Mail the completed enrollment form and registration fee to: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, CE Group, 74 Brick Blvd., Bldg. 4, Suite 206, Brick, NJ 08723. You will receive your certificate in four to six weeks. For faster service, include a fax number and we will fax your certificate within two business days of receiving your enrollment form. You will receive your CE certificate of earned contact hours and an answer key to review your results. There is no minimum passing grade.
  • Registration deadline is August 31, 2017.


  • Send in together two or more tests from any nursing journal published by Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins (LWW), and deduct $0.95 from the price of each test.
  • We also offer CE accounts for hospitals and other health care facilities online at Call 1-800-787-8985 for details.


LWW, publisher of AJN, will award the number of contact hours indicated for each continuing nursing education activity. LWW is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the Commission on Accreditation of the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC).

These activities are also provider approved by the California Board of Registered Nursing, Provider Number CEP 11749 for the number of contact hours indicated. LWW is also an approved provider of continuing nursing education by the District of Columbia and Florida #50-1223. Your certificate is valid in all states.


The ANCC's accreditation status of the LWW Department of Continuing Education refers to its continuing nursing educational activities only and does not imply Commission on Accreditation approval or endorsement of any commercial product.

‘I Am a Nurse’: Oral Histories of African Nurses


To present the details of a study done to collect the oral histories of African nursing leaders who studied and practiced nursing from the late colonial era (1950s) through decolonization and independence (1960s–70s), in order to better understand their experiences and perspectives.


After reading this article and taking this test, you will be able to

  • recognize components of the local history of nursing seen from the perspectives of indigenous African nurses.
  • identify former and current locally prescribed roles of nurses in Africa.
  1. Of the three sub-Saharan countries in which the authors focused their research, which is a former French colony?
    1. Togo
    2. Malawi
    3. Mauritius
  2. According to Tuhiwai Smith, oral histories reflecting the perspectives of elders and of women are an integral part of
    1. recovery from colonialism.
    2. all indigenous research.
    3. the African continental experience.
  3. Vansina believed that storytelling was a culturally appropriate research method, but he had to convince the historical establishment that it was
    1. valid.
    2. attainable.
    3. respectable.
  4. Colonial medical and nursing services in sub-Saharan Africa emerged in the late 19th century as a means to care for the health of
    1. blacks who lived in small cities.
    2. whites who lived in large cities.
    3. blacks who lived in rural areas.
  5. The large multiethnic population in Mauritius was composed largely of Indians, Chinese, and
    1. Pakistanis.
    2. Japanese.
    3. French.
  6. In Mauritius, a relatively high percentage of men practicing which of the following religions entered nursing?
    1. Judaism
    2. Christianity
    3. Islam
  7. In keeping with British standards, by 1958 nursing students in Mauritius were required to hold certification in
    1. intravenous therapy.
    2. secondary education.
    3. health care management.
  8. In Malawi in the 1960s, the country's first prime minister placed a high priority on expanding health care, including the education of nurses and
    1. midwives.
    2. physicians.
    3. pharmacists.
  9. By their third year, nursing students in Mauritius and Malawi had to
    1. function as physicians.
    2. administer medications.
    3. take charge of the wards.
  10. Among the diseases most prevalent in Togo was
    1. pertussis.
    2. dengue fever.
    3. schistosomiasis.
  11. Study participants reported that, regardless of race or nationality, relations between students and instructors were often tense because of the instructors’
    1. lack of commitment.
    2. strict expectations.
    3. religious beliefs.
  12. Malawian study participant Ms. Ziba commented that which of the following is her priority?
    1. her patients
    2. nursing students
    3. her coworkers
  13. The main language of Indians in Mauritius is Mauritian
    1. Urdu.
    2. Hindi.
    3. Creole.
  14. In government hospitals in Mauritius, male and female patients
    1. were together in the wards.
    2. had completely separate wards.
    3. could choose between sex-segregated and integrated wards.
  15. In hospitals in Togo during the 1950s and early 1960s, the only patients referred to physicians were those who were the
    1. elite.
    2. poorest.
    3. sickest.
  16. According to Mauritian study participant Ms. Poule, nurses often had to
    1. cook for families of patients.
    2. clean all patient care areas.
    3. manage assistive personnel.
Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.