To conduct a systematic review of the published research literature on end-of-life (EOL) care in prisons in order to determine the current state of the science and suggest implications for nursing practice and areas for future research.
Applying the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we performed a comprehensive search of the literature using the following databases: CINAHL, Criminal Justice Abstracts, the National Criminal Justice Reference Service, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Sociological Abstracts. All databases were searched from the time of their inception through June 2014. All English-language articles that reported on original quantitative and qualitative research involving EOL or palliative care delivered to prisoners were included. We abstracted data, using the matrix method, and independently reviewed and graded the evidence on its level of strength and quality in accordance with the Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice rating scales.
Nineteen articles, all published between 2002 and 2014, met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 53% were published between 2009 and 2014, and 58% reported findings from qualitative research. One article reported on research conducted in the United Kingdom; the remaining 18 reported on research conducted in the United States. Capacity (that is, the number of prisoners requiring EOL care and the ability of the prison to accommodate them) and the site of EOL care delivery varied across studies, as did the criteria for admission to EOL or hospice services. Care was provided by prison health care staff, which variously included numerous professional disciplines, corrections officers, and inmate caregivers. The inmate caregivers, in particular, provided a wide array of services and were viewed positively by both EOL patients and health care staff. There are insufficient data to characterize the patients’ and inmate caregivers’ perceptions of the EOL care staff and the quality of care they provided. The screening criteria applied to inmate caregivers and the training they received varied widely among care programs. Inmates providing EOL care viewed caregiving as a transformational experience. Likewise, prison administrators and health care staff viewed inmate participation positively.
This literature review reveals the challenges of providing EOL care to prisoners and may inspire nurses to consider steps they can take individually or within nursing organizations to improve this care and address the unique challenges faced by dying inmates. By being aware of these issues and advocating for best practices, nurses can help inmates at the end of life to have a dignified death.