Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia is rare in general, but occurs in up to 28% of patients receiving liver transplantation for fulminant non-A, non-B hepatitis. Cases are commonly young men with mild hepatitis but severe aplastic anemia. Although cases have been reported in association with hepatitis A, B, and C, most appear to be due to a non-A-B-C virus. We report two cases of acute hepatitis subsequently complicated by marrow hypoplasia in patients with acute parvovirus B19 infection. Hepatic manifestations of parvovirus B19 infection range from liver chemistry abnormalities to fulminant hepatic failure and aplastic anemia. Our cases demonstrate a less severe form of hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia, and together with other data, suggest that parvovirus B19 is at least one cause of hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia, and may be a heretofore underrecognized hepatotrophic virus.