The economic and clinical implications of eradicating Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) with vonoprazan-based and rifabutin-based regimens vs other existing prepackaged first-line treatment options in the United States are unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of vonoprazan-based and rifabutin-based and other prepackaged regimens for the first-line treatment of H. pylori from the perspective of US healthcare payers.
We used the state-transition Markov model to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of H. pylori eradication with clarithromycin triple, bismuth quadruple, vonoprazan dual, vonoprazan triple, and rifabutin triple regimens. In a cycle length of 2 months, the model estimated the expected costs (expressed in 2022 US$), expected quality-adjusted life-years (QALY), incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, and expected net monetary benefit over 20 years. In addition, we accounted for the present value of future costs and QALY by applying a 3% discounting rate.
In this study, rifabutin triple therapy had a lower expected cost but was more effective than clarithromycin triple, bismuth quadruple, and vonoprazan dual regimens; hence, it dominated them. Vonoprazan triple therapy had a higher expected cost (US$ 1,172 vs US$ 1,048) and expected QALY (14.262 vs 14.256) than rifabutin triple therapy, yielding an estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of US$ 22,573/QALY. The study suggested that vonoprazan triple treatment had the highest expected net monetary benefit and was the most cost-effective at willingness-to-pay thresholds between US$50,000 and US$150,000 per QALY, followed by rifabutin triple therapy.
H. pylori infection eradication with vonoprazan triple therapy would provide the greatest net health and monetary benefit from the perspective of US healthcare payers.