Beyond oral contraceptives (OCs), metabolic factors have been suggested to increase the risk of hepatocellular adenoma (HCA). The impact of risks remains poorly defined, particularly among men and those with adenomatosis. Thus, we aimed to examine HCA clinical and outcome characteristics through a large multicenter cohort.
HCA diagnosis was made based on a combination of clinical, radiologic, and histologic criteria. Patient and clinical data including follow-up imaging, complications, and interventions were collected between 2004 and 2018 from 3 large academic centers.
Among 187 patients (163 female and 24 male) with HCA, 75 had solitary HCA, 58 had multiple HCAs, and 54 had adenomatosis. Over a median follow-up of 3.3 years (quartile 1: 1.2, quartile 3: 8.8), 34 patients (18%) had radiologic interventions, 41 (21%) had surgical resections, 10 (5%) developed tumoral hemorrhage, and 1 had malignant transformation. OC and corticosteroid use were present in 70% and 16%, respectively. Obesity (51%), type 2 diabetes (24%), hypertension (42%), and hypertriglyceridemia (21%) were also common. Metabolic comorbidities were more common in patients with large HCAs and adenomatosis. Compared with women, men had less hepatic steatosis (4% vs 27%), smaller HCAs (2.3 cm vs 4.4 cm), and more corticosteroid use (38% vs 11%) (P < 0.05 for all). With OC cessation, 69% had a decrease in size of HCA, but 25% eventually required advanced interventions.
In this large HCA cohort, obesity and metabolic comorbidities were important risk factors associated with large HCAs and adenomatosis. Long-term adverse outcomes were infrequent, 5% had tumor hemorrhage, and 1 patient exhibited malignant transformation.