The aim of this registry-based cohort study was to evaluate the potential role of endoscopic esophageal surveillance for esophageal second primary tumors (ESPTs) in Western patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
Outcomes were cumulative incidence and risk factors for ESPTs and its effect on overall survival.
A total of 47 ESPTs were observed in 1,708 patients with HNSCC, with 10-year cumulative incidence (95% confidence interval) of 2.9% (2.1–3.7). Alcohol and HNSCC location were significant predictors for ESPTs. ESPTs significantly increased the risk of dying (adjusted hazard ratio 3.36, 95% confidence interval 2.16–5.22).
Endoscopic esophageal surveillance of Western patients with HNSCC with high risk of ESPTs seems justified.